OJAFR Latest Issues

Volume 4 : Issue 5 - September 2014

Table of Content, 25 Sep 2014

Publisher Item Identifier (pii) / Research Title

Article Information /


pii: S222877011400020-4

The effect of feeding graded levels of roasted sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) seed meal on weaner rabbit

Original Research, D20

Duwa, H., Girgiri, A.Y., Dauda, A. and Igwebuike, J.U.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 4(5): 107-112, 2014.

ABSTRACT: The effects of feeding graded levels of roasted sunflower seed meal inclusion on the performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of weaner rabbits were evaluated. Thirty six (Dutch x chinchilla) breeds of rabbit of mixed sexes were used for the experiment which lasted for nine weeks (63 days). They were matched for weight and randomly allotted to four treatments with nine rabbits per treatment and were replicated three times in a completely randomize block design. The levels of roasted sunflower seed meal were 0, 10, 20 and 30 % respectively. The diets and clean water were offered ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The productive performance results showed that rabbits on diet four consumed significantly (P<0.05) more feed than those on diets one (control), two and three, and the lowest feed intake were recorded in T1 (control). The final body weight, total weight gain, daily weight gain and the feed conversion ratio significantly (P<0.05) revealed higher mean values in T3 (20%) and T4 (30%) inclusion of roasted sunflower seed meal than the T1 (control). The feed cost (N/Kg) and Total feed cost (N) indicated significant (P<0.05) reduction among the treatment groups as the roasted sunflower seed meal levels inclusion in the diet increased.  Significantly (P<0.05) better feed cost/Kg gain were obtained in T4 than T1 (control). The nutrient digestibility revealed significant (P<0.05) difference among the treatment groups in all the parameters, but the mean values were inferior in the T1 (control) than the T2, T3 and T4 respectively. The results of carcass characteristics revealed high significant (P<0.05) difference among the treatment groups except in the lungs, heart, small and large intestine, spleen and stomach. Based on these results, growing rabbits could tolerate up to 30 % roasted sunflower seed meal in their diets with no adverse effect.
Keywords: Rabbit, Sunflower seed, Performance and Carcass characteristics.



pii: S222877011400021-5

Effect of weaning age and sex on bone development of pigs raised under intensive system and slaughtered at 70 kg body weigh

Original Research, D21

Ganelang B., Moreki J.C., Nsoso S.J., Tsopito C.M.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 4(5): 113-120, 2014.

ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of weaning age and sex on bone development of pigs raised under intensive system and slaughtered at 70 kg body weight. A total of 24 piglets were randomly assigned to 3 weaning ages: treatment 1 (21 days of age), treatment 2 (28 days of age) and treatment 3 (35 days of age). Feed and water were given ad libitum up to slaughter weight of 70 kg. Data were analysed as completely randomized design (CRD) using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of statistical analysis system, version 9.3. Weaning age did not have significant (P > 0.05) effect on bone length and width of pigs. However, pigs weaned at 35 days of age tended to have longer femur (17.4 ± 0.17 cm), tibia (16.0 ± 0.19 cm) and humerus (15.6 ± 0.17 cm) than those weaned at 21 and 28 days of age. A 28 days weaning age resulted in significantly heavier femur (239.0 ± 6.19 g vs. 216.8 ± 6.19 g), tibia (145.8 ± 4.02 g vs. 132.0 ± 4.02 g) and humerus (211.7 ± 4.91 g vs. 195.9 ± 4.91 g) compared to 21 day weaning age. Tibia ash percentage was significantly higher (52.3 ± 0.65 % in pigs weaned at 35 days of age compared to those weaned at 28 (47.6 ± 0.65 %) and 21 days (46.8 ± 0.65 %). Pigs weaned at 35 days had significantly higher tibia Ca content (38.4 ± 0.36 %) compared to those weaned at 28 (37.2 ± 0.36 %) and 21 days (36.9 ± 0.36%). Phosphorus content of the tibia bone was significantly affected by weaning age while Mg content was not affected. Males had significantly heavier femurs (226.4 ± 3.89 g) than females (207.2 ± 3.89 g) pigs weaned at 21 days while tibia and humerus fresh weight of pigs weaned at 21 days was not affected by sex. Sex did not affect tibia mineral content at 21, 28 and 35 days weaning ages. Piglets can be weaned at 21 or 35 days of age without negatively affecting bone development. Twenty one days weaning age is recommended as pigs weaned at this age reach slaughter weight earlier than other weaning ages.
Keywords: Bone Length, Bone Mineral Content, Bone Weight, Sex, Weaning Age.



pii: S222877011400022-4

Growth, haematological and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens fed banana peel meal as replacement for maize in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria

Original Research, D22

Duwa, H., Saleh, B., Lamido, M. and Saidu, A.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 4(5): 121-126, 2014.

ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to investigate the replacement of maize with banana peel meal in broiler diets. One hundred and twenty (120) Anak 2000 broiler chicken were used for the study. Four diets were formulated using banana peel meal at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% levels in the respected diets. The birds were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment consists of thirty birds with ten birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks; feed and water were given ad libitum. The productive performance results indicated high significant (P<0.05) difference in final weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio among the treatment group at different levels of replacement. Haematological indices and serum biochemical indices also followed similar pattern as the productive performance by revealing high significant (P<0.05) difference at different levels of maize replacement with banana peel meal in Packed cell volume (PCV), Red blood cell (RBC), Haemoglobin (Hb), White blood cell (WBC), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), Mean corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Heterophils and Lymphocytes. The serum biochemical indices revealed high significant (P<0.05) difference in total protein, albumen, glucose, total bilurobin, potassium, sodium and chloride. In view of the above, up to 15% replacement of maize with banana peel meal has no adverse effect on performance and blood components of broiler chickens with concomitant reduction in feed cost N/kg and feed cost per kg gain.
Keywords: Broiler Chicken, Banana Peel, Maize, Growth and Blood Components



pii: S222877011400023-4

 Influence of pre-treatment methods and levels of inclusion of cassava peel /blood meal mixtures on nutrient utilization and relative organ weights of rabbit does

Original Research, D23

Ojebiyi O.O., Oladunjoye I.O., Farinu G.O., Olota A.M.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 4(5): 127-132, 2014.

ABSTRACT: A 12 weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of pre-treatment methods and levels of inclusion of cassava peel/blood meal mixtures (3:2) on nutrient digestibility and relative organ weights of rabbits does.Ten diets were formulated with diet 1 serving as the control without cassava peel/blood meal mixture. Diets 2, 5 and 8 had 10% cassava peel+blood meal mixture, Diets 3, 6 and 9 had 20% cassava peel+blood meal mixture while Diets 4,7 and 10 had 30% cassava peel+blood meal mixture. For diets 2, 3 and 4 cassava peels were ash-treated (ATD/BM), for diets 5, 6 and 7 the cassava peels were parboiled (PAB/BM) and for diets 8,9 and10 the cassava peels were sun dried (SUD/BM). The rabbits were divided into 10 treatment groups of six rabbits each and assigned randomly to the ten diets. Each rabbit served as a replicate in a randomized complete block design experiment in a factorial arrangement. The digestibility of nutrients was affected (P<0.05) by pre-treatments methods as well as levels of inclusion levels. Although the digestibility of the various nutrients differs (P<0.05) and did not follow a specific pattern, both the pre-treatment methods as well the levels of inclusion did not affect (P>0.05) the final Live weight of the rabbits. Pre-treatment methods as well as the level of inclusion affected (P<0.05) the relative organ weights of the spleen and kidney. From the results these non-conventional feed ingredients can be included in growing rabbit diet up to 30% level since performance especially final live weights were not affected.
Keywords: Pre-treatment, Cassava Peels, Rabbit, Digestibility, Organ Weights



pii: S222877011400024-4

 Prevalence of Salmonella species in stray cats in Mosul city, Iraq

Oiginal Research, D24

Mushgil Zenad M., Talib Al-Obaidi Q. and Abdul-Mohsen Al-Talibi M.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 4(5): 133-136, 2014.

ABSTRACT: Stray carnivores are often exposed to intestinal infection with Salmonella species and might remain carriers for long period, so they have great possibilities for shedding these organisms; particularly the stray cats in cities are more than others because of their size and habits; thus they might contribute actively in contamination of environment. The aim of this study was to detect Salmonella species in stray cats and to access their role in spreading of salmonella infection. Rectal swabs from 59 apparently healthy cats were cultured, tetrathionate broth and Salmonella–Shigella agar were used. Euthanization and post mortem examinations were done later. Bacterial isolation from internal organs was carried out also. Morphological properties and biochemical tests were dependent for detection of Salmonella organisms. They were serotyped in Central Health Laboratory in Baghdad. A high isolation rate of Salmonellae (10.16%) was recorded (by rectal swabs). Various Salmonella serovars were observed: S. anatum (3.38%), S. montevideo (3.38%), S. typhimurim (1.69%) and S. brenrderup (1.69%). The isolation rate from internal organs was lower (0.67%) than that from rectum,  S. typhimurim (1.69%) and S. montevideo (1.69%) were isolated from small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes respectively. Stray cats have great chances to get intestinal infection in comparison with the house cats due to their living style. In conclusion asymptomatic (carriers) stray cats were considered a dangerous source of infection with Salmonellae, besides their significant role in contamination of environment; they will threat public and animal health particularly in cities.
Keywords: Salmonella, Cats, Enteric Infection in Mosul.