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Volume 6 (2); 25 March 2016 [Booklet]


Research Paper

Effect of supplementation, birth type and sex on lambs’ growth rate under range condition.

IDRIS A., Kijora C., Salih A. M., Eltaher H. and Bushara I.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 6(2): 24-29, 2016; pii: S222877011600005-6

Abstract

Supplementary feeding experiment was carried out with desert ewes and their lambs prior to late pregnancy days and during lactation period at Agricultural Research Station, El-Obeid, North Kordofan, Sudan. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementation on body weight of lactating ewes and their lambs’ growth rate in the dry season. The ewes were allocated to one of four treatment groups, one group was the control (CTL) as in farmer practice. The second, third and fourth groups  were supplemented with rations composed of local ingredients, diet 1 composed of groundnut seed cake, Roselle seeds, sorghum and 5% molasses (GRS-5%M), diet 2 composed of groundnut seed cake, Roselle seeds, and sorghum (GRS), and diet 3 composed of groundnut seed cake, Roselle seeds, sorghum and 7.5% molasses (GRS-7.5%M). Ewes and lambs were recorded within 4 h after birth. Lambs weights were recorded weekly before weaning weight (day 60) and tell 120 days. The results indicated that, lambs growth rate was highest for supplemented dams before weaning, lambs suckling dams supplemented with GRS-7.5%M recorded heavier (P < 0.05) weights, and then followed by GRS and GRS-7.5%M. Lambs suckling dams on control group (CTL) recorder lower (P < 0.05)  growth rate in 75 days. Ewe's age had effect on lambs weight change, lambs suckling older animals gained weight earlier compared with younger, also the study showed that, male lambs had higher (P < 0.05) growth rate than female lambs. Single lambs were significantly heavier than twins before weaning.
Keywords: Supplementation; Late Pregnancy, Desert Ewes, Lambs Growth Rate, Dry Season.

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Research Paper

Kitchen waste - a promising feed resource for livestock.

Hossain M.E., Ahmed M.I., Sultana S.A. and Karim M.H.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 6(2): 30-37, 2016; pii: S222877011600006-6

Abstract

The study was conducted to find out the chemical composition of different vegetable wastes to use them as feed for livestock to enhance their productivity as well as to reduce feed cost. Total 10 different types of vegetable wastes like Banana tree (Musa paradisiaca), Bean leaf (Lablab purpureus), Bilimbi leaf (Averrhoa bilimbi), Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), Pumpkin leaf (Cucurbita maxima), Radish (Raphanus sativus), Ridge guard (Luffa acutangula) and Spinach (Spinacea oleracea) available in different areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh were collected. Samples were chopped and tested immediately for moisture content and remaining samples were sun-dried and processed using standard procedure. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for Dry matter (DM), Crude protein (CP), Crude fiber (CF), Nitrogen free extract (NFE), Ether extract (EE) and Ash. Metabolizable energy (ME) was calculated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, crude protein content in Banana tree was 15.6 g/100g, Bean leaf 28.2 g/100g, Bilimbi leaf 11.9 g/100g, Cabbage 18.9 g/100g, Cauliflower 17.3 g/100g, Pumpkin 12.9 g/100g, Pumpkin leaf 25.0 g/100g, Radish 14.9 g/100g, Ridge guard 23.4 g/100g and Spinach 11.4 g/100g. In addition to crude protein, all samples contained substantial amount of crude fibre, nitrogen free extracts, ether extracts and ash. It could therefore be inferred that, the vegetable wastes could be incorporated in appreciable quantities for substituting the conventional feed resources of animal diet.
Keywords: Ash, Crude Fiber, Crude Protein, Ether Extract, Kitchen Waste, Moisture, Nitrogen Free Extract.

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Research Paper

Minerals disappearance rate of leaves of some acacia trees after digestion in goats’ rumen using nylon bags technique.

Al shafei N. K and Nour A.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 6(2): 38-44, 2016; pii: S222877011600007-6

Abstract

The browse plants, including acacia species, provide excellent forage with high nutritive value for ruminants especially in dry areas of Africa. In this study, some minerals (P, K, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Cu and Zn) were determined in leaves of browse plants (Acacia albida, Acacia nubica, Acacia sieberiana, Balanites aegyptiaca and Ziziphus spina- christi) collected from different areas of Sudan before and after digestion of the sample in goat’s rumen by using nylon bag technique. Nylon bags containing the samples were inserted through the rumen fistula into the goat’s rumen, and were incubated for 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs. After incubation periods, it was found that there were a high loss of minerals and this is attributed to the rumen digestion and solubility of minerals in rumen liquor. The results indicate that the time of incubation and the type of mineral likely had a significant effect on the loss of minerals in the rumen. It can be observed from these figures that the disappearance rates (slope of the curves) vary across mineral types and species of acacia trees. Disappearance rates suggest that the rumen microorganisms have a significant role in the digestion of minerals and their disappearance rates are due to the solubility of minerals in the rumen liquor and the loss of minerals due to utilization of microorganisms to a certain amount for their maintenance.
Keywords:
Acacia Trees, Browse Plants, Minerals, Rumen, Nylon Bag Technique, Disappearance Rates.

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Review

Effect of dietary tannin source feeds on Ruminal fermentation and production of cattle; a review.

Addisu Sh.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 6(2): 45-56, 2016; pii: S222877011600008-6

Abstract

Generally, tannins are widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom, especially among trees, shrubs and herbaceous leguminous plants. Tannins are naturally occurring polyphenols with different molecular weights and complexity that are synthesized during the secondary metabolism of plants. Tannins might bind to macromolecules (proteins, structural carbohydrates and starch) and decrease their availability to digestion. Tannins based on their chemical structure and properties divided into two groups, hydrolyzable tannins (HT) and Condensed tannins (CT, proanthocyanidins). Tannins are polyphenols, which directly or indirectly affect intake and digestion. They are the primary source of astringency in plants, which results from binding to proteins, forming soluble or insoluble complexes. The nature of the interaction is greatly dependent on the structure of the polyphenols and the proteins involved. Relatively low concentration of tannins (0.5% of DM intake) is sufficient to destabilize the bloat proteins while high concentration (2-4% of DM intake) is needed for improvement of protein utilization. High concentration (> 5% of dry weight reduces feed intake and feed conversion efficiency. Tannins containing forages will be important for small ruminants to control of gastrointestinal parasites. Animals fed condensed tannin had lower dressing percent than controlled one; with dressing percent being intermediate for animals fed hydrolysable tannin. Neither tannin source affected the animal’s consumption of the diet or the animal’s growth. Additionally, the tannin sources did not affect the meat or by-product tissues, making tannin supplementation a viable option in finishing beef cattle. Therefore, tannin source feed will have its own advantages and disadvantages on animals’ performance.
Keywords: Dietary Tannin, Digestion, Ruminal fermentation  

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Research Paper

Effect of medicated urea molasses blocks on sub-clinical parasitic infestations in goats.

Abid R, Khan I, Bhatti J A, Shah Z, Zahoor A, Ahmad Sh.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 6(2): 57-61, 2016; pii: S222877011600008-6

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of medicated urea molasses blocks (MUMB) on sub-clinical parasitic infestations and urea molasses blocks (UMB) to replenish nutrients scarcity. Twenty four goats were divided randomly into three groups of eight animals each (n=8) according to Completely Randomized Design (CRD) a group was no supplement (control) and the other were supplemented with UMB and MUMB for 90 days. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed under CRD through one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean daily dry matter intake was higher (1.502 ± 0.121 kg) in MUMB supplemented group and lowest in control group (Lenovo). Mean daily weight gain of goats in control, UMB, MUMB was 64 ± 23, 71 ± 22 and 85 ± 21 grams, respectively. Body condition score (BCS) was recorded in 1-5 scale of meat goats. The mean BCS in control, UMB and MUMB was 2.741 ± 0.193b, 2.816 ± 0.185ab and 2.903 ± 0.248a respectively. Mean fecal egg count was lowest in MUMB as followed by UMB and control group. It is concluded that feeding of MUMB have significant effects for the control of sub-clinical gastrointestinal worm’s infestation and replenishes nutrients deficiency by providing energy and protein.
Keywords: Goats, Nutrients Deficiency, Gastrointestinal Worm, Infestations

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