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Volume 7 (3); 25 May 2017


Local_Chicken_Ecotypes_EthiopiaReview

Review on the Status, Characterization and Conservation Methods of Local Chicken Ecotypes, Ethiopia. 

Getu A, and Alemayehu K.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 7(3): 43-50, 2017; pii: S222877011700008-7

Abstract

Review work was conducted to assess the characterized and conservation methods of indigenous chickens in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia Chickens are the most wide spread and dominant poultry species. Since local chickens have good potential to adapted in different agro-ecology and provide luxurious source of family protein and income to rural poor. However, village chicken is usually kept under free ranging production system. Still those local chickens are non descriptive type and show variations in body position, color, comb type and productivity. Indigenous chickens have characterized as; poor appearance, relatively low productivity, slow growth rate, small adult size and lays small egg. So, they are neglected from researchers, development workers and policy makers to put them in the research and development. To decrease loose of chicken genetic resource, phenotypic and genotypic characterization work were conducted. However, many chickens are lack with information about their geographical distributions and its availability. Many previous reports underlined that the breed characteristics of indigenous chickens are vary in color, comb type, body conformation and weight. High incidences of chicken diseases, mainly (NCD), coccidioses, salmonellae’s fowl pox are the major and economically important constraint for village chicken production system following feeds and predators. Further constraints are poor access to markets, weak institutions, and lack of skills and knowledge which lead to high rate of genetic erosion. According to DAD-IS and DAGR-IS, the evidences about the genetic resource of identified chickens are undocumented and unobserved as well, only small number of chickens ecotype such as Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi, Gelila, Debre-Elias, Melo-Hamusit, Gassay/Farta, Guangua, Mecha, Konso, Mandura, and Sheka are the major identified and characterized type of local chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia. Therefore, conservation practices are not common rather than aggravating the erosion of local chicken resources through random distribution of exotic chickens.
Keywords: Chickens, Conservation, Indigenous

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OJAFR-17Feb-2017Research Paper

Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and its vector density in Sheka zone, Anderacha Woreda. 

Yigzaw B, Asmare T, Derso S.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 7(3): 51-57, 2017; pii: S222877011700009-7

Abstract

A cross sectional study was conducted in Andracha woreda Sheka Zone of South western Ethiopia to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine trypanosomiasis using parasitological and entomological study. It was conducted from November, 2015 to April, 2016. Blood samples from randomly selected 383 cattle of both sex and different age groups were collected and examined with hematological and parasitological techniques. Out of the total examined cattle, 8(2.1%) were infected with trypanosomes. The highest infections were due to Trypanosoma conglense (1.3%) followed by mixed infection (0.52%) and Trypanosoma brucei (0.26%). The disease was more prevalent (2.3%) in females than in male cattle (0.2%). There were no statistically significant difference among / between age and sex groups (P > 0.05). The mean PCV (%) values during the study period were 23.38 ± 1.51 in parasitaemic and 30.02 ± 0.14 in aparasitaemic animals, which was found statistically significant (P < 0.05). Glossina pallidipes were the only fly species caught during the study period and the entomological monitoring showed that the apparent density (expressed as flies per trap per day, i.e. f/t/d) of Glossina Pallidipes in the study area were 0.83, 0.89, 1.11 and 0.44 at Yokchichi, Gemadro, Beshifa and Shebena, respectively; with the overall apparent density of 0.82. Since it is endemic diseases, strategic control of bovine trypanosomiasis including vector control should be strengthened to improve livestock production in this area.
Keywords: Trypanosoma, prevalence, Glossina, PCV, Anderacha woreda, Sheka, Ethiopia

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OJAFR-1063Research Paper

Stomach adaptations of broilers fed Acacia angustissima leaf meal based diets.

Ncube S, Halimani TE, Tivapasi MT, Dhliwayo S, Chikosi E V-I and Tapiwa Saidi P.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 7(3): 58-64, 2017; pii: S222877011700010-7

Abstract

The study determined effect of Acacia angustissima leaf meal on the stomach physiology of broilers. 150 day old chicks were randomly allocated to 0%, 5% and 10% A. angustissima leaf meal based diets for six weeks with five replicates per treatment. At weeks 2, 4 and 6, two birds from each replicate were slaughtered, dressed and weighed. The weights of the proventriculus and gizzard were measured. Approximately 1 cm specimen was taken from each organ, fixed in formalin and stained for histological analysis using a light microscopy. Proventriculus muscle layer thickness, gland diameter and secretory layer thickness decreased with increasing leaf meal levels (P < 0.05). A. angustissima leaf meal had no effect on the physiology of the gizzard during the starter phase (P>0.05). Continued use of the of A. angustissima leaf meal in the grower and finisher diets resulted in increased weight and muscle thickness of the gizzard (P < 0.05). It was concluded that A. angustissima leaf meal reduced the physiological capacity of the proventriculus to secrete digestive juices and enhanced the physiological capacity of the gizzard for mechanical digestion.
Keywords:
Acacia angustissima, Broilers, Gizzard, Grinding capacity, Proventriculus

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OJAFR-Apr13-2017Research Paper

Small ruminant GIT parasites in Enemay District, East Gojjam: Prevalence and risk factors.

Derso S and Shime A.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 7(3): 65-71, 2017; pii: S222877011700011-7

Abstract

A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with small ruminants GIT helminthes parasites in Enemay district, East Gojjam, Northwest of Ethiopia from October, 2013 to April, 2014 based on coprological examination. A total of 384 small ruminants’ faecal samples (248 sheep and 136 goats) were collected and examined using standard parasitological procedures of sedimentation and flotation techniques. The present study revealed that the overall prevalence of the major gastrointestinal tract (GIT) helminthes parasite was 229 (59.63%). Out of 229 positive samples the species of parasites were found Strongyle (22.9%), Fasciola (14.1%), Paramphistomum (7.03%), Monesia (5.73%) and as mixed infection (9.9%). Strongyles were the most prevalent parasites encountered in the area followed by Fasciola. The study showed that 63.7% and 52.2 % of sheep and goats, respectively were infected with one or more helminthes and higher prevalence was observed in sheep than goats and there was statically significant (P < 0.05) between them. Female animals were found with higher prevalence of helminthes infection rate than male animals with a prevalence of 59.9% and 40.1%, respectively and there was statically significant (P < 0.05) between sex. Higher prevalence was observed in young animal than adult animal in this study and the prevalence was 67.9% and 53.6%, respectively. There was statically significant (P < 0.05) between age group. The study showed that higher prevalence of helminthic infection was observed in poor body condition animals as compared to medium and good body condition animals and their prevalence were 89.9%, 59% and 44% respectively. There was highly statically significant (P < 0.000) between body condition of the animal. In Conclusion the animal was affected by different helminthes parasites infections which cause loss of production, reducing growth rate and death of small ruminants. The animal owner should be deworming their small ruminants by different anthelmintics based on order of the Veterinarian to avoid drug resistance as recommendation.
Keywords:
GIT helminthes, Prevalence, Small ruminants, Enemay district, Ethiopia

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