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Volume 8 (3); 25 May 2018

OJAFR-18Jan-2018-lowResearch Paper

Effect of using lemon citrus compared to rennet coagulation on physiochemical yield and sensory properties of cheese from cow and goat’s milk. 

Bhagiel BI, Hamid EE and Hamza AE.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(3): 46-51, 2018; pii: S222877011800007-8


This study was conducted to assess the yield and sensory characteristics of cheese produced from different milk sources (cow and goat using lemon citrus juice as coagulant compared with the commonly used rennet enzyme. The milk of the two species was collected from experimental dairy farms of animal production college (Kuku) and college of agricultural studies (Shambat), Sudan university of science and technology. After pasteurization at 85 ºC for 30 min and cooling to 40 ºC, the collected milk samples were divided into four groups (each five liters of goats’ milk and cow’s milk were treated with both Rennet enzyme and citric acid (Lemmon juice), respectively. Thereafter, the samples were incubated at 38 ºC. The results revealed that Cow’s and goat’s milk that treated by rennet enzyme coagulated after one hour of incubation, while both milks treated by citric acid was coagulated immediately after 10 min. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) on physiochemical characteristics (protein, fat, total solids or TS, acidity, ash, lactose and solids-not-fat or SNF) between goat’s and cow’s cheeses were obtained. It was observed that cheese manufactured from goat’s milk using citric acid aggulation recorded higher protein, fat, ash, T.S, pH and TNF, percentages, while acidic cow’s cheese showed high moisture, lactose, and acidity. While, enzymatic goat’s cheese revealed high percentages, of protein, fat, ash, TS, Ca and acidity, and enzymatic cow’s cheese revealed high moisture, lactose, SNF and Phosphorus percentage. The sensory evaluations showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences on taste, flavor, smell, texture, and overall acceptability. The best values for taste, color and overall acceptability were obtained from enzymatic (rennet) goat’s cheese followed by enzymatic (rennet) cow’s cheese, then acidic (citric) cow’s cheese and acidic (citric) goat’s cheese was the last. The perfect hardness and texture were obtained from enzymatic (rennet) cow’s cheese. Moreover, the best smell was recorded for the cheese produced from cows’ milk by enzymatic curdling. Where, the most acceptable flavor was attained by the cheese processed from cows’ milk by citric acid coagulation. The results indicated that the weight of the final products obtained from cows’ and goats’ milk using citric acid coagulant was higher than that obtained from the same milks using rennet enzyme coagulant. It is possible to conclude that lemon citrus juice can be utilized as an alternative coagulant in production of local Sudanese white cheese for high yield and short curdling time which performed favourably with the commonly used rennet enzyme.
Keywords: Lemon Juice, Rennet, Coagulation Cheese Processing, Cows, Goats, Milk

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OJAFR-4-Aug-C-2017Research Paper

Challenges and market opportunities of cattle fattening around Gondar town, Ethiopia. 

Birhan M, Adane K, Abebe Z And Habtie B.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(3): 52-58, 2018; pii: S222877011800008-8


A study was conducted to assess cattle fattening opportunity, challenges and marketing system from January to May, 2017. The primary data was collected from purposively by interview in selected 50 cattle fattener households. According to the respondents, information color was the major selection criteria for fattening purpose with the proportion of 28% red coat and 10% for bulla (mixed color), 8% for white and 44% for black colors, whereas castration of animals was another fattening criterion for in the study area. Accordingly, about 6% of the respondents were fattened the castrated animals while the remaining 94% were the uncast rated bulls. Almost all respondents indicated that concentrate (10%), roughage (8%) and both concentrated and roughage feeds (82%) were the used feed sources for fattening purpose. Deciding finishing period of fattening cattle in the study area were based on live weight change (58%), by calculating feeding length (4%) and 38% of the respondents were used both. Market information is a crucial issue to reduce information gaps and uncertainties that existed in the livestock sector. The price of fattening cattle depends on weight and age of the animals. Lack of capital (40%) was the main constraint to begin cattle fattening and other constraints were shortage of feed and water, insufficient land, occurrence of disease and lack of awareness in order of importance 26.67%, 16.67%, 10%, 6.67%, respectively. And the opportunity of the area is also livestock access, meat demand of people increase and butchers house. Therefore, from the present study, it can be concluded that cattle fattening in Gondar town is one of the potential strategy to improve the livelihood of the family and had a good potential of market flow.
Keywords: Cattle Fattening, Constraint, Opportunity, Challenges, Opportunity

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OJAFR-1084-lowResearch Paper

Maize cobs and potato hash silage as alternative feed for grower pigs under smallholder production in Gauteng province of South Africa. 

Thomas RS, Ncobela C, Mphofu K, Sebothoma P, Tsatsimpe M, Makgoth OGi, and Kanengoni AT.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(3): , 2018; pii: S222877011800009-8


Maize cobs (MaC) and potato hash (PoH) are readily available and can be incorporated into pig diets to reduce feed costs and minimize nutrient losses to the environment but there is scant information on their utility on farm. A study was designed to evaluate pigs’ growth performances when fed three diets; a control diet (CON) and a diet containing maize cob and potato hash silage inoculated with an exogenous feed enzyme (xylanase (Natugrain TS L®)) (MaCPoHES) and (MaCPoHS) without an exogenous feed enzyme on-farm level. The study was conducted at two smallholder pig farms in Gauteng province, South Africa. The three diets were formulated to contain 16 % crude protein (CP)/kg DM (dry matter) and 14 MJ of digestible energy (DE)/kg DM. Sixty large white x landrace cross bred pigs (30±5.0 kg body mass) from each farm were randomly allocated to the three treatment diets in a completely randomized design and fed ad libitum for 56 days. The pigs that were fed MaCPoHES from both farms had a better feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with pigs that were fed CON and MaCPoHS. In addition, pigs that were fed CON had higher dry matter intake (DMI) than pigs that were fed MaCPoHS diets. There were treatment x farm interactions for average daily gain (ADG) and FCR. In addition, there were no treatment x farm interactions for initial weight (IW), final weight (FW), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and dry matter intake (DMI) in both farms. However, pigs at Zuurbekom farm had a higher ADG, ADFI and DMI than pigs at Winterveld farm. Pigs fed MaCPoHES diet had a better FCR compared to the CON on both farms. This suggests that the use of these agricultural by-products in growing pig diets can help reduce feed costs. More studies need to be carried out to determine the optimum inclusion level of MCPH in pig diets, their impact on carcass quality and the cost benefit.
Keywords: Smallholder farm, Maize cob, Potato hash, Enzyme, Grower pigs

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OJAFR--_Omega-3_enrichment_of_broiler_dark_meat-_lowResearch Paper

Omega-3 enrichment of broiler dark meat: reducing unlike fats and fishy taint to increase consumer acceptance

Chekaniazar S and Aghdam Shahryar H

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(3): , 2018; pii: S222877011800010-8


Fish oil (FO) rich in the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC n-3 PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C22:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) play substantial roles to improve FA composition and enhance health-related effects of animal products like meat, dairy and eggs.However, optimization based solely on omega-3 enrichment could lead to undesirable odours in animal-source foods, unless the FO withdrawal period is applied for 1 week before slaughter. The aim of study was to investigate whether the replacement of FO with poultry fat (PF) in the diet for 21 days followed by its withdrawal for 1 week affected fishy taint of thigh meat, cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TG) concentrations, n-3-enrichment and growth rate of male broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty birds (21-day-old, Ross 308) were fed 1 of 4 dietary groups (T1=3%PF, T2=2%PF+1%FO, T3=1%PF+2%FO, T4=3%FO) during a 21-d growth period. Broilers fed dietary fish oil indicated an improved rate of growth (P < 0.01) plus a decline of the CHOL and TG levels as well as the n-6: n-3 ratio in thigh meat. Moreover, amount of LC n-3 PUFAs especially EPA and DHA were increased and hence a lower monounsaturated FA: PUFA ratio was detected on day 42 and also after oil/fat withdrawal from the diet. The juiciness and tenderness of dark meat of broilers fed FO dietary groups were raised. But the fishy taint was unfavorably higher (P < 0.01) especially in T4 meat that affected flavor and acceptability thereof. The dissatisfaction of the panelists toward cooked samples of T4 scored as neither like acceptable and their satisfaction with group 3 meats scored as good. Since the lowest n-6/n-3 FAs and a good growth rate were also observed for 1%PF+2%FO (T3), group 3 meats were selected as good-quality omega-3 enriched broiler meat. It is concluded that pre-slaughter withdrawal of replaced fish oil in broiler diet seems ensure the good performance, n-3 enrichment of thigh without probable off-flavors or unlike fats (CHOL and TG) of dark meat.

Keywords: Broilers, Fish Oil, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Thigh Meat, Sensory Quality 

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