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Volume 8 (4); 25 July 2018 [Booklet]


Research Paper

OJAFR-1084-lowMaize cobs and potato hash silage as alternative feed for grower pigs under smallholder production in Gauteng province of South Africa. 

Thomas RS, Ncobela C, Mphofu K, Sebothoma P, Tsatsimpe M, Makgoth OGi, and Kanengoni AT.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(4): , 2018; pii: S222877011800011-8

Abstract

Maize cobs (MaC) and potato hash (PoH) are readily available and can be incorporated into pig diets to reduce feed costs and minimize nutrient losses to the environment but there is scant information on their utility on farm. A study was designed to evaluate pigs’ growth performances when fed three diets; a control diet (CON) and a diet containing maize cob and potato hash silage inoculated with an exogenous feed enzyme (xylanase (Natugrain TS L®)) (MaCPoHES) and (MaCPoHS) without an exogenous feed enzyme on-farm level. The study was conducted at two smallholder pig farms in Gauteng province, South Africa. The three diets were formulated to contain 16 % crude protein (CP)/kg DM (dry matter) and 14 MJ of digestible energy (DE)/kg DM. Sixty large white x landrace cross bred pigs (30±5.0 kg body mass) from each farm were randomly allocated to the three treatment diets in a completely randomized design and fed ad libitum for 56 days. The pigs that were fed MaCPoHES from both farms had a better feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with pigs that were fed CON and MaCPoHS. In addition, pigs that were fed CON had higher dry matter intake (DMI) than pigs that were fed MaCPoHS diets. There were treatment x farm interactions for average daily gain (ADG) and FCR. In addition, there were no treatment x farm interactions for initial weight (IW), final weight (FW), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and dry matter intake (DMI) in both farms. However, pigs at Zuurbekom farm had a higher ADG, ADFI and DMI than pigs at Winterveld farm. Pigs fed MaCPoHES diet had a better FCR compared to the CON on both farms. This suggests that the use of these agricultural by-products in growing pig diets can help reduce feed costs. More studies need to be carried out to determine the optimum inclusion level of MCPH in pig diets, their impact on carcass quality and the cost benefit.
Keywords: Smallholder farm, Maize cob, Potato hash, Enzyme, Grower pigs

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OJAFR-1071-_Production_of_bST

Review

Review on the role of bovine somatotropin hormone for dairying.

Addisu Sh, Tegenaw K, and Tesfa A.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(4): 90-96, 2018; pii: S222877011800012-8

Abstract

Bovine somatotropin (bST) is a metabolic protein hormone used to increase milk production in dairy cows. This hormone is important for growth, development, and other bodily functions of all animals. The only source of bST is from the pituitary glands of slaughtered cattle. Dairy cows are usually injected subcutaneously the volume of injective of a commonly used formulation is 1.4ml. The injection is typically repeated every 14 days. BST has the potential to increase the efficiency of milk production but there is no a change in milk composition. Potentially 10-15% more milk can be obtained from each cow with a cost of implementation of less than 5%. Good management measures recommended by a product manufacturer to ensure a high response in milk yield to bST administration. It increases the body weight and heat stress of the user animals. However, culling rate is higher in the bST treated animals than the non-treated. This hormone also does not have side effect on the health of human being (it is a treatment of children suffering from hypopituitary dwarfism as well as animas, but it increases the frequency of certain disease conditions such as mastitis and foot problems in cows. Therefore, using bST hormone is an important for developing countries which is food insecure and poor productive dairy cow, because even if it costs and needs good management, will not have said effect on human being, animals as well as environment.
Keywords: Bovine somatotropin hormone, Dairy, Effect, Milk

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OJAFR-02Jan-2018

Research Paper

Effects of period of calving, season of calving and parity on milk production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cows in Alage ATVET college, Ethiopia.www.ojafr.ir

Worku D.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(4): 97-104, 2018; pii: S222877011800013-8

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate milk production performance of Holstein Friesian and associated factors in dairy farms of Alage Agricultural Technical and Vocational Education Training College. The productive traits’ data gathered from 1987 to 2015 were analyzed using general linear model procedures of SAS version 9.2. The result revealed that the overall least square means and standard errors for daily milk yield (DMY), 305 days milk yield (305DsMY), lactation milk yield (LMY) and lactation length (LL) were 8.06±0.119 kg, 2473.3±34.78 kg, 2395±61 kg and 323±5.34 days, respectively. Period of calving and parity had significant effect (P < 0.001) on productive traits (DMY, 305 DsMY, LMY, and LL) of Holstein Friesian cows. Whereas, season of calving was not significant on all productive traits of HF cows. The overall value obtained for DMY, 305 DsMY, LMY and LL were very disappointing and below the standard set for commercial dairy farm. Furthermore, the milk production performance of Holstein Friesian found was lower than the milk production performance reported in many tropical regions. Poor management and climatic condition combined with a poor adaptation of Exotic breeds in Ethiopia were the most probable factors accounted for this poor overall value of the breed. Therefore, giving attention to the poor management of the breed and improving the level of genotype by environment (GXE) interaction is required for optimal production performance of Holstein Friesian breed in the area.
Keywords: Alage dairy farm, Productive performance, Holstein Friesian

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OJAFR-1093-PRODUCTIVE_RESPONSES_OF_GRAZING_COWSResearch Paper

Productive responses of grazing cows to feed supplementation in the Coastal Savannah zone of Ghana. 

Obese F, Adjorlolo LK and Dwumah K.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(4): 105-111, 2018; pii: S222877011800014-8

Abstract

Daily weight gains, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, concentrations of blood metabolites and resumption of ovarian activity were evaluated in 10 Sanga and 10 Friesian-Sanga cows grazing on natural pasture and supplemented with 2.5 kg of concentrate a day for 10 weeks during the dry season. Average daily gain in weight was similar in the Sanga (293 g) and Friesian-Sanga crossbred (288 g). Body condition score was also similar in the two breeds, but Friesian-Sanga cows had higher milk yield than Sanga cows (2.23 vs 1.65 L/day; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the concentrations of all the plasma metabolites determined apart from albumin and cholesterol concentrations. Albumin concentration was significantly higher in the Friesian-Sanga crossbred cows than Sanga cows (31.0 vs 29.3 g/L; P < 0.05), but total cholesterol was significantly higher in the Sanga than the Friesian-Sanga crossbreds (2.33 vs 2.01 mmol/L; P < 0.01). The two breeds had similar interval from calving to resumption of ovarian activity and proportion of non-cycling cows. The results from this study indicate the beneficial effects of feed supplementation on milk yield in Friesian-Sanga cows. Further studies need to be carried out to determine the effects of feed supplementation on milk composition and concentrations of metabolic hormones such as insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin that mediate the effects of nutrition on ruminant reproduction.
Keywords: Blood metabolite, coastal savannah, dry season, nutrition, ovarian activity

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