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Volume 8 (6); Nov 25, 2018


OJAFR-1106Research Paper

Morpho-histological study of coccidiosis in broilers in the Souk Ahras region, Algeria. 

Berghiche A, Khenenou T, Amira B, Amina G and Labied I.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(6): 136-144, 2018; pii: S222877011800018-8

Abstract

The aim of this study was assess the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the normal and the abnormal gut in coccidiosis disease of broiler chickens during post hatching age in souk Ahras area. The results showed that the small intestine is the most sensitive organ to avian coccidiosis. The necropsy showed that the lesions are expressed according to the species, A strong congestion with hemorrhagic area in cecum coccidiosis. Atrophy of the intestinal villous with thickening of the mucosa was observed in the case of intestinal Coccidiosis. Microscopic translation revealed hydropic degeneration and necrosis of enterocytes with pycnotic in the intestinal mucosa and the presence of strong enteritis. Coccidiosis is one of the most frequent parasitic diseases in poultry in Algeria, it takes many forms and occurs all types of poultry farming around the world, this illness has serious economic damage, an epidemiological surveillance plan for this disease is necessary in order to control its propagation and to reduce its risk.
Keywords: Broiler Chickens, Post Hatching Age, Coccidiosis, Macroscopic and Microscopic Appearance.

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OJAFR-13Jul-2018Research Paper

Evaluation of pre-weaning growth performance and survival rate of sheep in Hulet Eju Enesie district, East Gojjam zone, Ethiopia. 

Lamesegn D, Tegegne F, Mekuriaw Y and Chanie D.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(6): 145-149, 2018; pii: S222877011800019-8

Abstract

The study was conducted in Hulet Eju Enesie District, East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia, with the main objectives of evaluating pre-weaning growth performance of sheep. The study district was stratified in to Dega, Weina dega and Kolla agro-ecologies. A total of 48 (16 from each agro-ecology) late pregnant sheep flocks were selected purposely for monitoring. The data were collected from sampled households using semi-structured questionnaires and through monitoring. Birth weight and 90 days weight were taken using 50kg weighing balance with 200g precision. Collected data monitoring of lambs were subject to GLM analyzed by using SPSS software (version 20.0). The average birth weight, 90 days weight and average growth rate of lambs were 2.46 ± 0.07 kg, 10.26 ± 0.12 kg and 89.66 ± 1.28 g/day which were significantly different (P< 0.05) among agro-ecology, breed, parity, types of birth and sex of lambs. Survival rate of lambs was 91.67%. Therefore, birth weight, pre-weaning growth weight, pre-weaning growth rate and survival rate were significantly affected by agro-ecology, parity, litter size and sex.
Keywords: Birth weight, Daily weight gain, Pre-weaning growth rate and Survival rate.

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OJAFR-03Aug-2018--Sheep_feedingResearch Paper

Husbandry practices of sheep in Hulet Eju Enesie district, East Gojjam zone, Ethiopia. 

Lamesegn D, Tegegne F, Mekuriaw Y and Ayalew H.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(6): 150-157, 2018; pii: S222877011800020-8

Abstract

TThe study was conducted in Hulet Eju Enesie District, East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia, with the main objective of assessing husbandry practices. The study district was stratified in to Dega, Weina Dega and Kolla agro-ecologies. Six kebeles were selected by proportional allocation methods. For survey, 150 sample households were selected for interviewed by using simple random sampling. In addition, 72 households were selected for group discussion by using simple random sampling, male and female with equal proportion. Collected data from survey were subject to Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Chi-square (χ2) by using SPSS software (ver. 20). The mean flock size per household was 12.52 in Dega, 9.43 in Weina Dega and 8.32 in Kolla (P< 0.05). The purpose of keeping sheep were sale (income source), meat and saving purpose as indicated with index value of 0.48, 0.28 and 0.12 respectively. Major feed source varied according to seasons; communal grazing 37.1% from (Sep-Nov), Grazing after math 47% from (Dec-Feb), Crop residue 38.1% from (Mar - May) and private grazing 31.8% from (Jun–Aug). Haricot bean straw (64%) is a major crop residue. Chi-square (χ2) analysis result showed that there was significant difference (P< 0.05) on types of supplementary feeds in different agro-ecological zones. Atela (97.3%) was dominant supplementary feed. Sheep house constructed attached to the family house and sharing a common wall is the most common sheep house. Mean age for castration and tail docking were 14.84 and 3.77 months respectively. Selection criteria of sheep for castration and fattening were physical characteristics, breed and conformation with index value 0.43, 0.26 and 0.23 respectively. Washera (79.3%), crossbred (12%) and both Washera crossbred and “local “sheep (17.3%) respectively. Age at first mating, age at first lambing, lambing interval, slaughtering age for male, slaughter age for female and marketing age of sheep were 7.47, 12.46, 8.05, 5.96, 6.25, 6.5 months respectively. Litter size (mean 1.55) was significantly (P< 0.05) different among agro-ecologies.  Disease, and parasites, and feed shortage were reported to be the two major constraints of sheep production in the area with index value 0.381 and 0.357.
Keywords: Breed, Castration Practice, Constraints, Culling Practice, Husbandry practice, Opportunities, Tail docking, Weaning

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OJAFR-Sep9-A-2018-subclinical_endometritis

Research Paper

Diagnosis of subclinical endometritis during postpartum period on subsequent pregnancy in small, medium and large scale dairy farms in and around Gondar, North West Ethiopia. 

Moges N.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(6): 158-163, 2018; pii: S222877011800021-8

Abstract

During the study period 147 apparently healthy 3rd trimester pregnant cows were selected in smallholder, medium and large scale dairy farms in and around Gondar, North Western Ethiopia from January 2015 to September 2017. After calving, endometrial samples were collected from the uterus of apparently normal cows by using uterine lavage technique on postpartum dairy cows from 40-60 days. Collected samples were centrifuged and a drop of sediment was streaked onto a clean microscopic slide and stained with giemsa. The percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (neutrophils) was calculated. It was found that increase in the number of neutrophils correlated with decrease in pregnancy. The incidence of subclinical endometritis was different in small, medium and large scale dairy farms 25 (37.88%), 29 (43.94%) and 13 (18.18%), respectively. The mean number of services per conception was found as2.04 for subclinical endometritis positive cows. In the present study endometrial cytology revealed that the PMN count of 3% and above was suggestive for subclinical endometritis. In conclusion, subclinical endometritis diagnosed by endometrial cytology was associated with reduced rate of pregnancy.
Keywords: Endometrial Cytology, Neutrophiles, Pregnancy, Subclinical Endometritis

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OJAFR-1095Research Paper

Relationship between eggs shape index and embryonic mortality

Jabbar A, Hameed A, Ditta YA and Riaz A.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 8(6): 164-168, 2018; pii: S222877011800022-8

Abstract

The study was conducted to assess the effect of eggs shape on hatchery parameters. The eggs shape (SI) is a critical tool to investigate the outcome from eggs during incubation. In this experiment three groups of good quality intact eggs (each n= 500) having thick shell without any kind of contamination were collected from three different broiler breeders’ farms SP117 (Ross), SSF (Ross) and SP 118 (Ross).The manage mental and incubation conditions were same for all three groups. The SI was measured and maximum deviation from standard was found for SP117 (80.94±0.04a, 78.46±0.07b, 76.57±0.04c) then SSF and SP118 respectively. Due to SI deviation hatchability % (78.25±0.01a, 81.17±0.09b, 91.35±0.07c), candling% (8.67±0.02a, 9.36±0.06b, 4.71±0.09c), dead in shell % (13.08±0.10a, 6.94±0.03b, 3.94±0.07c), chick yield % (67.31±0.09a, 68.24±0.01b, 69.10±0.05c), hatch window hrs (28-30±0.03a, 24-26±0.07b, 22-24±0.03c) were significantly different for SP117, SSF and SP118 respectively. Water loss was significantly higher (P<0.05) for SP117 (12.01±0.03a) as compare to SSF and SP118 (11.89±0.04b, 11.87±0.04b). The effect of eggs shape index was also found on mal-position and mal-formations. The maximum dead and cull chicks 0.5% were found for SP117 as compare to SSF or SP118. Similarly mal-position head in small of eggs and feet over head were found maximum for SP117 0.3% and 0.8% respectively. The maximum mal-formation ectopic viscera 0.7 % and excess albumin 0.5% was found for SP 117 as compare to SSF or SP118. The maximum dead in shell, mal-position and mal-formation were found for SP 117 due to maximum deviation from SI as compare to SSF or SP118. Eggs shape Index is a good tool to access the quality of eggs.

Keywords: Dead in shell, Hatchability, Mal-Position, Mal-Formation, Shape Index

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