OJAFR Latest Issues

Volume 2 : Issue 3 - May 2012

Table of Content, 15 May 2012

Research Title/ Field

Article (Abstract)



A comparative study of local Ghanaian maize, imported yellow maize and two new quality protein maize (QPM) varieties – Etubi and Golden Jubilee – Effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs

Original Research, B41

Salifu, A-R.S., Okai, D.B., Boateng, M. and Ewool, M.B.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 2(3): 218-223, 2012.

ABSTRACT: The experiment was conducted to determine growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing four different varieties of maize. Twenty individually- housed, Large White pigs (12 males and 8 females) with an average initial body weight of 13.3 kg were allotted to four dietary treatments labelled, Local Normal (LN), Imported Normal Yellow (INY), Golden Jubilee (GJ) and Etubi (ET) in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each treatment was replicated five times, with a pig representing a replicate. Feed and water were offered ad-libitum and growth performance was monitored over the trial period (13-70kg liveweight). There were no significant effects of diets on ADFI and FCE but ADWG and feed cost per kg gain were influenced by the diets. The values were 0.64, 0.61, 0.56 and 0.60 kg and GH¢1.74, GH¢1.90, GH¢1.76 and GH¢1.75 for the LN, INY GJ and ET treatments respectively. The values for LN, GJ and ET were statistically similar (P>0.05). Values for carcass length, dressing percentage, shoulder, loin, belly, thigh, and bac kfat thickness were not statistically different (P>0.05) between the four dietary treatments. However, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the values for heart, liver, spleen, full gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the respiratory tract. The results indicated that using GJM and ETM varieties could be more economical and could lead to the production of leaner pork carcasses.

Key words: Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Golden Jubilee Maize, Etubi Maize, Pigs


In Vitro Ruminal Protein Degradability of Leaves From Three Tree Species Harvested at Two Cutting Intervals

Gliricidia sepium

Leucaena leucocephala

Trichanthera gigantea

Original Research, B42

Edwards A, Mlambo V, Lallo CHO, Garcia GW, Diptee M.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 2(3): 224-230, 2012.

ABSTRACT: In vitro ruminal protein degradation characteristics of protein supplements represent an accurate measure of the quality of protein for ruminant animals. As such, crude protein disappearance of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Trichanthera gigantea leaves, which are potential sources of supplemental protein for ruminants, was determined using the ANKOM in vitro ruminal degradability technique. Dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) disappearance were measured after 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h of incubation. Degradation kinetics were described using the Ørskov and McDonald equation y=a+b(1-e-cx). The degradable part of the insoluble DM fraction (b) was highest (P<0.05) in G. sepium leaves (27%) at the 12 week cutting interval. Effective dry matter degradability (EDMD) was highest (P < 0.05) in the leaves of G. sepium (74.9%) at the 12-week cutting interval. CP washing losses was highest (P < 0.05) in the leaves of L. leucocephala (46.8%) and lowest in T. gigantea leaves (16.3%) at the 6-week cutting interval. Crude protein disappearance was highest (P<0.05) in the leaves of G. sepium and lowest in T. gigantea leaves at both the 6 and 12-week cutting intervals after incubation at 48 h. It is concluded that in vitro ruminal protein degradability is more pronounced in the leaves of G. sepium and L. leucocephala. Approximately 50% of their protein is degraded in the rumen suggesting that they would be useful as sources of readily available nitrogen for rumen microbes challenged with low nitrogen, fibrous basal diets. Trichanthera gigantea leaves have higher levels of rumen undegradable protein suggesting that they can be used to supply by-pass protein for animal.
Key words: 
In Vitro Rumen Degradability, Protein Quality, Effective Degradability, Harvesting Frequency, Tree Forages


Preliminary on–station study of growth performance of grower pigs on ensiled cassava pulp and dried cassava leaves


Original Research, B43

Rhule SWA, Asiedu P, Ameleke GY, Baiden RY, Sottie ET, Otsyina HR
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 231-234, 2012.

ABSTRACT: The performance of grower pigs on diets containing graded levels of cassava pulp, cassava peels and dried cassava leaves was studied. Twenty-four Large White grower pigs at an average initial live-weight of 20 kg were distributed over six diets by the completely randomized design. The pulp was preserved by ensiling in polyethylene bags for a period of three months before use. The pigs were group-fed once-daily for five weeks. The average daily gains (ADG) of the pigs were 0.27, 0.19, 0.28, 0.26, 0.15 and 0.20 kg live-weight gain/day on diets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. The cost of feed were 0.16, 0.15, 0.15, 0.13, 0.12 and GH¢0.10 per kg of feed for diets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively. The corresponding economy of gain (EG) were 0.58, 0.74, 0.53, 0.49, 0.72 and GH¢0.49. The highest inclusion rate was 30% for the pulp and 20% for the leaves. The pigs were weighed weekly over a five week period. Whereas the ADG of the pigs in this study was best on diet 3 (25% pulp), the EG was best on the diets 4 (30% pulp) and 6 (20% cassava leaves).

Key words: Ensiled Cassava Pulp, Dried Cassava Leaves, Large White Grower Pig, Average Daily Gain, Economic of Gain





Nutritive value of rice polish


Original Research, B44

Hossain ME, Sultana S., Shahriar SMS, Khatun MM.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 235-239, 2012.

ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to observe the chemical composition of different types of rice polish available in different areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Twenty different types of rice polishes were collected from study areas. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for moisture, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), ether extract (EE) and total ash (TA) in the animal nutrition laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Metabolizable energy (ME) was calculated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, there were no marked variations (P>0.05) in the moisture, DM and TA contents of the samples. However, ME, CP, CF, NFE and EE content significantly differed (P<0.01) from one sample to another. Moisture content varied from 4.0 to 11.4 g/100g, DM content varied from 88.6 to 96.0 g/100g, ME content varied from 1321.8 to 3086.9, CP content varied from 4.7 to 14.9 g/100g, CF content varied from 6.4 to 41.5 g/100g, EE content varied from 1.0 to 18.0 g/100g, NFE content varied from 25.1 to 52.9 g/100g and TA content varied from 7.1 to 17.6. It could therefore, be inferred that, the chemical composition rice polish currently available in the local market are widely variable.

Key words: Rice Polish, Moisture, Dry Matter, Crude Protein, Crude Fiber, Nitrogen Free Extract, Ether Extract and Total Ash


 Substitution of lysine with mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus) in broiler chick's diet

Original Research, B45

Ezeonyejiaku CD, Ebenebe CI, Okeke JJ, Obiakor MO, Ezenwelu CO.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 2(3): 240-243, 2012.

ABSTRACT: Effect of inclusion of mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus) to substitute lysine in the diet of broiler chicks was investigated. The study lasted for a period of twelve weeks. Twenty four broiler chicks were subjected to two different dietary treatments (Diet I contained 0.22% of mushroom while Diet II contained 0.22% of synthetic Lysine and was used as control). The different treatments had four replicates of three birds each housed in a metabolic cage. Two parameters, mean weight gain and mean feed intake were recorded. Student t- test showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the mean weight gain for the chicks on the two treatments (DI-3550g and DII-3375g) and mean feed intake for the chicks on the two treatments (DI-502.5g and DII-420g). Consequently, the observed results showed that mushroom can be used to substitute lysine in the diet of broiler chicks.
Key words:
Mushroom, Lysine, Broiler Chicks, Amino-Acid


Evaluation of I2 thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine on local chickens in selected districts of western Amhara


Original Research, B46

Nega M, Moges F, Mazengia H, Zeleke G, Tamir S.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 2(3): 244-248, 2012.

ABSTRACT: Evaluation of l2 thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine was conducted in three districts of four local chicken ecotypes using survey and sera analysis from 2010 to 2011. According to the survey result conducted on 160 chicken owners, the major chicken production constraint 77.5% of the area was disease and mortality of chickens by any cause from day old to adult chicken age was 44.6%, ranging from 39.9%, 45.3%, 45.8%, and 46.3% at Melohamusit, Mecha, Farta, and Tillili, respectively from which disease related mortality was 77%. Mortality of chickens due to disease outbreak was usually higher during the beginning of the rainy season, mainly in April (43.1%), May (38.8%) and June (63.8) as first, second and third priority months, respectively and there is significant deference in disease occurrence among seasons. The overall seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in village chickens using Hemagglutination inhibition test (≥1:16) was 55.8%. However, the antibody titer response to I2 thermostable vaccine was 90.4% ranging from 83.8%, 90.9%, 91.7%, 95.1% in Mecha, Tillili, Farta and Melohamusit, respectively after one vaccination and 93% ranging from 90.9%, 93.3%, 93.8%, 96%, in Mecha, Melohamusit, Tillili and Farta, respectively after booster dose vaccination. There was no significant difference in antibody titer detected between local chicken ecotypes and/ or districts before and after vaccination. However, there was significant difference in antibody titer after 1st (P =0.000) and booster dose (P =0.000) vaccination. A quick survey conducted after the last vaccination showed that mortality of chickens became 8.2% which is reduced by 82% than the mortality before vaccination. In conclusion this vaccine was found very appropriate and effective in reducing village chicken mortality and morbidity, so controlling of Newcastle disease using I2 thermostable vaccine could be a key to the development of village chicken production.

Key words: Hemagglutination, I2 thermostable vaccine, Newcastle disease, Village chickens


Some behavioral traits of red neck ostrich under captive conditions

Original Research, B47

Mohammed Ahmed FA, Mohammed Salih RR.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 2(3): 249-252, 2012.

ABSTRACT: The present study has been conducted to observe some behavioral traits of ostrich under captive conditions. The observations have been carried during the period 14 June to 24 June, 2005, for 8 equal time period, extending for 24 hours from 0600 p.m hour to 0600 p.m hour next day. The bird flack consisted of two adult males and adult female, kept in the Collage farm, in a cage joined to a fence to allow for free movement. The recorded behavioral activities included: standing in the sun, standing in shade, laying in the shade, laying in the sun, staying in the cage, movement and sitting on the knees, feeding, drinking, quarrel, urination, defecation, ritual display, courtship, and preening. It was noticed that the most time consuming activities were standing in the sun, standing in the shade, laying in the shade, and movement. The longest period of the time budget was taken in laying in shade (250.3 min.). The shortest fraction of the time budget was spent in courtship maneuvers (3.25 min.). The main target of the study was to provide ostrich breeders with useful information for better management.

Key words: Behaviour, Ostrich, Captivity Condition, Birds


Hatchability of guinea fowls eggs and performance of keets under the traditional extensive system in Tolon-Kumbungu district of Ghana

Original Research, B48

Naandam J, Issah GB,
Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 2(3): 253-257, 2012.

ABSTRACT: A study was carried out to examine the hatchability of guinea fowls eggs and performance of keets under the traditional extensive system. A short questionnaire to ascertain production scope and management practices were administered to a total of ten farmers; five farmers from each of two communities, using purposive sampling. In order to establish some actual production indices, data was collected from the sampled farmers on mean number of eggs incubated, mean weight of eggs  incubated, mean number of eggs hatched, percentage hatchability of eggs, mean weekly numbers of keets,  mean weekly weight gain of keets, total weight gain of keets and mortality rate of keets. Data were analyzed using Genstats Discovery (3rd edition) and SPSS version 17. The main breeds of guinea fowls kept by farmers were the pearl and the lavender. The methods of identifying fertile eggs by farmers were by the use of size and texture of eggs. Majority of the farmers (80%) fed their guinea fowls with maize, while (20%) fed them with millet before egg laying, but during egg lay 80% of the farmers fed their guinea fowls with millet for the reason that it increased egg production. For the production indices, there were significant differences (P<0.001) in mean weekly numbers of keets and mean weekly weight gain of keets for the study period. A much lower significant difference (P<0.05) was observed for the total weight gain of keets, possibly because weight gain through growth over stripped the weight losses through mortality. Mortality rate of keets was high ranging between 61-69% within the two communities, though these did not significantly differ from each other. Mean number of eggs incubated was 18.4 for Nafaring community and 25.4 for Cheyohi community. Similarly the mean weight of eggs incubated, total weight of eggs incubated, number of eggs hatched and percentage hatchability (%) were 31.4g and 31.8g, 577.8g and 807.7g, 13.4 and 18.6, 72.8% and 73.6%, respectively. There were significant differences in performance indices across the weeks but not between the two communities.

Key words: Communities, Hatchability, Keet Performance Traditional Extensive System, Mortality


 Degradation characteristics of some Sudanese grasses and gas production techniques

Original Research, B49

Idris A.O., Kijora C., Salih A.M., Bushara I., Elbukhary H.A.A.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 258-263, 2012.

ABSTRACT: Eighteen plant species, three ingredients, and six diets were studied for their degradation characteristics, using gas production techniques. The palatable grasses were selected during the rainy season from the range land of Kordofan, Sudan. The ingredients were Roselle seeds, Sorghum grain and Groundnut cake. The samples were incubated for 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, using rumen inoculum of three of the sheep used for the nylon bag. The results showed a large variation between the different plant species in the gas volume. The potential gas volume reflected the presence of anti-nutritional factors. Gas production from the ingredients indicated that sorghum grain recorded the highest gas production volume. The gas production at different time intervals showed increased degradability in the grasses, diets and the ingredients. Eragrostis tremula could be used as reference forage in evaluating the organic matter digestibility and energy density of grasses and Farsefia longisiliqua as a reference for crude protein.
Key words: In vitro, Gas production, Grasses degradability, Rangeland of Kordofan, Sudan


Inventory and development perspective of milk production in Saharan area: the case of the Ghardaïa region (Algeria)


Original Research, B50

Bensaha H, Mayouf R, Bensaha L.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 264-269, 2012.

ABSTRACT: The National Fund for the Development of Agricultural Investments (FNDIA) supports various actions, including the dairy industry (mini-dairy, production and birth bonuses, milk collection, processing and artificial insemination). At the level of the Ghardaïa region, like the other Saharan regions, FNDIA helped initiate the development of livestock and thereby contributed to the increase in the number of head of cattle. The establishments of nurseries and of specialized dairy barns have created a dynamic in the dairy cattle farming and have positive impacts on the local market, namely an increase in the production of milk. According to the Directorate of Agricultural Services (DSA) of the Wilaya of Ghardaia (2010), the number of imported dairy cattle between 1995 and 2010 rose from 177 to 1688 dairy cows owned by the private sector. 13 400 liters of milk are collected daily by dairies and milk collection points. In this context, the objective of this research is to develop an inventory of the dairy industry in Ghardaia and identify its strengths and weaknesses in order to propose solutions to ensure its sustainability and thus provide guidance to the strong investment by government.

Key words: Agricultural Development, Dairy Cattle, Ghardaïa, Milk Production, Saharan Region


Residue depletion of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in pigs and broilers after oral administration

Selected by OJAFR editors as
Hot Paper
in terms of careful work, write and submission

Original Research, B51

Roncada P., Tomasi L., Sori F., Zaghini A., Zaccaroni A., Ferrara D.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 270-276, 2012.

ABSTRACT: The residual behaviour of a sulphadiazine (SDZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) combination was studied in fourteen pigs and twenty-eight broilers. The drug combination was added in the amount of 700 mg kg-1 (SDZ) and 140 mg kg-1 (TMP) to pig and 300 mg kg-1 (SDZ) and 60 mg kg-1 (TMP) to broiler feed, respectively. The medicated feeds were supplied for 5 consecutive days. The tissue SDZ/TMP concentrations were measured by a HPLC method. To ensure safe residue levels in all target tissues, withdrawal time of 8.6 days and 6.0 days should be applied to pigs and broilers, respectively, treated with SDZ and TMP in feed.
Key words: 
Sulphadiazine; Trimethoprim; Pigs; Broilers; Residues; Withdrawal Time; Veterinary Drugs


 Marketting situations of livestock feeds in Welmera and Dendi Wereda of west Shoa zone, Ethiopia

Original Research, B52

Mesfin R., Tesfaye A.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 277-282, 2012.

ABSTRACT: The paper explains the status of livestock feed resources and market situations in Welmera and Dendi weredas of West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. The objective of the survey was to assess the potentials and constraints of feed resources and related marketing practices and suggest appropriate intervention options to overcome the constraints. Majority (76%) of the interviewed farmers have faced shortage of livestock feeds. The diminishing trend of grazing land from time to time, roughage, concentrate feeds are the factors contributing to feed shortage. Moreover, the increasing trend in selling price of hay and concentrate feeds aggravates more to the problem. This situation is limiting livestock productive in the highlands of Ethiopia. Under this condition, farmers purchase feeds to both local and crossbred animals. The purchased feeds include: hay, straw, grazing area, oilseed cakes, wheat bran and wet grass. Among these, the grazing area purchased takes the highest (52%) proportion. Farmers and traders participate in purchasing of livestock feeds. The proportion of farmers that purchase feeds is higher (30%) than that of the traders (1%). To alleviate the problems related to shortage of livestock feeds and decline of animal production and productivity, rearing of improved crossbred dairy cattle under intensive management and forage/fodder development and feeds conservation schemes should be promoted in a wider scale. Considering the ever-increasing price of feeds, there is a need to shift from purchased commercial feeds to the use of farm produced feed resources.

Key words: Farmers, Grazing Land, Roughage, Concentrate Improved Forage


Addition of protein sources for calves supplemented with high moisture sorghum grain silage grazing low-quality pastures

Original Research, B53

Rovira, P.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 283-287, 2012.

ABSTRACT: Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of protein addition to high moisture sorghum grain silage (HMS) daily supplemented to calves at a rate of 1% of body weight (BW) grazing low-quality pastures. In exp. 1 addition of sunflower expeller or a protein ration to increase crude protein (CP) of HMS from 7.1% to 12% increased average daily gain 56% compared with calves fed only HMS (0.39 and 0.25 kg/a/d, respectively). Calves supplemented with protein sources were more efficient than calves supplemented only with HMS as feed conversion numerically decreased from 6.0 (HMS) to 4.5 (HMS + sunflower expeller) and 4.1 (HMS + protein ration). In exp. 2 CP of HMS (9.1%) was increased to 15.5% by adding sunflower expeller, urea or combination of both. Protein supplementation increased ADG and final BW (0.20 kg/a/d and 196 kg) compared with only HMS (0.03 kg/a/d and 176 kg). Protein source had no effect on animal performance. In exp. 3 CP concentrations in the supplement had a significant effect on ADG when increased from 8.9 to 16.1% (0.32 and 0.50 kg/a/d). Performance of calves fed either 16.1% or 20.8% CP supplements did not differ possibly because energy was becoming the limiting factor at the highest CP concentration level. Rib eye area and fat thickness were not affected by treatment although supplemented calves registered 7% and 10% greater values in those variables, respectively, than un-supplemented animals at the end of the experiment. The addition of protein sources to HMS increased performance of calves grazing low-quality pastures.

Key words: Calves, Pastures, Sorghum Silage, Protein Addition, Supplementation



Nutritive value of sawdust

Original Research, B54

Hossain ME, Rahman MJ and Islam KMF.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 288-291, 2012.

ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to observe the chemical composition of different types of sawdust available in the urban and peri-urban areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Twenty different types of sawdust from different plants were collected from study areas. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for moisture, dry matter (DM), metabolizable energy (ME), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), nitrogen free extracts (NFE), ether extracts (EE) and total ash in the animal nutrition laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Results indicated that, there were no variations (P>0.05) in the DM, EE and TA contents of the sawdust samples. However, ME, CP, CF and NFE content differed (P<0.01) significantly from one sample to another. DM content varied from 91.6 to 97.4 g/100g, ME content varied from 535.9 to 1756.7 kcal/kg, CP content varied from 1.8 to 3.5 g/100g, CF content varied from 39.5 to 74.0 g/100g and NFE content varied from 12.5 to 47.1 g/100g. It could therefore, be inferred that, sawdust currently available in the local market widely varies in chemical composition.

Key words: Sawdust, Dry Matter, Metabolizable Energy, Crude Protein, Crude Fiber, Nitrogen Free Extracts, Ether Extracts, Total Ash


Strain effect on some productive and reproductive performance traits of local improved Egyptian and Canadian chickens


Original Research, B55

Taha A.E., Abd EL-Ghany F.A., Sharaf M.M.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 292-300, 2012.

ABSTRACT: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of strain on some productive as well as some reproductive traits of local improved dual purpose three Canadian strains (Shaver A, B and C) and two Egyptian chicken strains (Salam and Mandarah). Results revealed that strain effect was evident for shaver C strain for (body weight at sexual maturity, body weight at 90 days of egg production, 42 and 65 weeks of age), also strain effect was evident for shaver C strain for feed consumption (at sexual maturity, 90 days of egg production, 42 weeks and 65 weeks of age) and (egg weight at 90 days of egg production, 42 and 65 weeks of age). While strain effect for fertility, hatchability and scientific hatchability, age at sexual maturity, Egg number at first 90 days of egg production and egg number at 42 and 65 weeks of age were recorded for Egyptian chickens. Moreover, negative correlation estimates were observed between age at sexual maturity and egg number at different periods as well as positive correlation between body weight at 8 weeks of age and most of productive traits that of high great benefits to select for economic traits in chickens at earlier age.

Key words: Strain, Egg Parameters, Egypt, Fertility, Hatchability, Correlation


Evaluation of Indirect ELISA in Diagnosis of Natural Ovine Cysticerciosis and Haemonchosis

Original Research, B56

Sultan K., Desouky, A.Y., Elbahy, N.M. and Elsiefy, M.A.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 301-302, 2012.

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA in diagnosis of natural infection of sheep with Cysticercus tenuicollis and Haemonchus contortus the most prevalent parasitic helminths in Egyptian sheep. By using non-purified crude antigens derived from the whole cyst of C .tenuicollis and adults H.contortus in the indirect ELISA assay; the results showed that both antigens sensitivity were 90%, 87.5% and the specificity were 60% and 75% respectively. These data proves the suitability of ELISA in diagnosis of such infections in living animals and the necessitation of using purified antigens rather than non-purified to increase the accuracy of the assay.
Key words:
ELISA, Ovine, Cysticercus, Haemonchus


Growth of poultry chicks fed on formulated feed containing silk worm pupae meal as protein supplement and commercial diet

Original Research, B57
Dutta A, Dutta S, Kumari S.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 303-307, 2012.

ABSTRACT: Waste silkworm pupae (SWP) generate vast resources of nutrients for livestock and poultry. In the present investigation, three days old chicks of RIR strain were allocated to five dietary treatments of silk worm pupae meal. The energy budget was prepared from calculated proximate analysis and growth performance of broiler chicks fed with different percentages of silk worm pupae. The result showed that the silkworm powder meal (SWPM) is the cheapest and has potential to replace the costly and contaminated fish meal, as the protein source, used in poultry industry.
Key words:
Poultry; Fish Meal; Silkworm Pupae Meal; Proximate Analysis; Growth Performance; Energy Budget


Effect of tartaric acid addition on rumen fermentation, methane production and digestibility in different diets containing wheat straw in vitro

Original Research, B58

Sirohi S.K., Pandey P., Goel N., Mohini M., Kundu S.S.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 308-313, 2012.

ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of tartaric acid addition in diets on in vitro methanogenesis and rumen fermentation. Different levels of tartaric acid (5, 10, and 15 ppm) were tested for their effect on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation and digestibility in three wheat straw containing diets i.e. Low fiber diet (LFD, 40R:60C), medium fiber diet (MFD, 50R:50C) and high fiber diet (HFD, 60R:40C). Evaluation of tartaric acid was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Methane production and individual fatty acids were estimated by Gas Chromatography. Results of different levels of tartaric acid on in vitro methanogenesis indicated that the maximum methane reduction (22.60% in term of mM/gDM) was observed in LFD at the supplementation dosage of 15 mM and a similar trend was seen, when methane was expressed in ml/gDM. Non-significant (P≤0.05) effect of tartaric acid addition on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was observed in almost cases. Protozoal population decreased with increasing concentration of tartaric acid and maximum reduction (54.64%) was in the MFD. Acetate to propionate ratio was decreased in tartaric acid supplemented diets which reflects increase in propionic acid production in comparison to control diet. Microbial biomass yield also increased due to the addition of tartaric acid in most of the diets.
Key words:
 Tartaric acid; Rumen fermentation; IVDMD, Microbial biomass; Methane production


Biometry and testicular growth influenced by nutrition on prepubertal pelibuey lambs

Selected by OJAFR editors
as Hot Paper

in terms of careful work, write and submission

Original Research, B59

Martinez JM, Dominguez B, Barrientos M, Canseco R, Ortega E, Lamothe C.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 314-321, 2012.

ABSTRACT: The growth and testicular development was studied in 48 Pelibuey male lambs 76.6±3.0 days of age and 12.7±1.9 kg body weight (BW), two groups were designed (n=24). 1: Intensive rotational grassing (IRG), 2: Intensive rotational grassing plus nutritional supplement (IRGS). BW was recorded every 15 days from 75 days of age to the onset of puberty. The animals grazed on Panicum maximum. IRGS received a concentrate with 15% of protein. The testicular biometry included scrotal circumference (SC) and testicular volume (TV). Blood samples were collected each 15 days from 90 to 190 days of age for evaluate the testosterone concentrations. BW, SC and TV at histological puberty was higher in IRGS than IRG; 22.5±1.5 vs. 16.06±1.5 kg, 22.0±1.0 vs. 12.2±1.5 cm, 60.5±1.7 vs. 12±3.5 cm3 respectively (P<0.05) with an average age for the two groups of 162±7.0 days. The correlation coefficient (R) was higher (P<0.05) for SC vs BW than age vs BW (0.884 vs 0.816) and the TV vs. BW than TV vs. age (0.849 vs. 0.777) in the IRGS; the IRG showed lower R for the same comparisons (P<0.05). Seminiferous tubules showed lumen by day 142, spermatids and spermatozoids by day 171 for IRGS, meanwhile in the IRG only showed gonocytes and Sertoli cells. Testosterone concentrations reached a peak (2.5 ng/ml) at 168 days of age for the IRGS meanwhile the IRG showed lower levels than 0.05 ng/ml. Testicular development and testosterone concentrations depends more on BW than age; and they are modified by the nutritional management in prepuberal male lambs.
Key words:
Testis Development, Puberty, Nutrition, Lambs


Preliminary investigation of aflatoxins in dietary ration of dairy cows in Khartoum state, Sudan

Original Research, B60

Elteib W.O.M., El Zubeir I.E.M., Fadel Elseed A.M.A., Mohamed A.A.
Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 2(3): 322-327, 2012.

ABSTRACT: This is a preliminary investigation of the incidence and levels of aflatoxins in dairy cow ration in Khartoum North locality using HPLC. The survey was based on three level of groundnut cakes concentration (low=16-18, medium=19-24 and high=25-32%). The data indicated that 2 out of 18 samples examined were contaminated with aflatoxins B1 (0.013 and 0.014 ppb), these values were below the maximum acceptable limit for dairy cows feeds (20 ppb) as was stated by FAO (1997). However further examination of 2 samples of groundnut cakes from the farms showing the positive sample, revealed 108.3 and 18.4 ppb for B1 and 71.6 and 12.4 ppb for B2, respectively. The study also suggested a relationship between the levels of groundnut cakes level in the feed ration of the dairy cows and the contamination by aflatoxins, as these positive samples were from feed ration of high level of groundnut cakes concentration. The positive samples were from dairy farms that mixed their own ration using a traditional mill. The study also showed the absence of G1, G2 and B2 in dairy cows feeding in Khartoum North locality. From this study it was concluded that ration formulation with different feedstuff could minimized the aflatoxins health risk for dairy animals, however further research is needed in this field.
Key words:
Aflatoxins, Groundnuts Cakes, Dairy Cows, Contamination