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Volume 3 : Issue 1 - January 2013

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Table of Contents, 25 January

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The Influence of Seasons on Blood Constituents of Dromedary Camel (Camelus Dromedarius)

Original Research, C1

pii: S222877011300001-3
Babeker E.A., Elmansoury Y.H.A. and Suleem A.E.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 3(1): 01-08, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out in White Nile State, Sudan for a period of one year, and was designed to investigate the effect of seasons on the blood constituents of dromadery camel (Camelus dromedarius). One hundred and four Samples different sex and age were collected in July (Rainy Season), September (Rainy hot summer), October (Dry wet winter) and April (Dry hot summer). The effect of season on some blood hematology, metabolites, enzymes and minerals profile was studied. The results showed higher significant level were: Monocytes, total protein and Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GPT) during rainy season, while MCV, MCH, lymphocytes, Eosinophils and Basophils in rainy hot summer, whereas within dry wet winter were: glucose, albumin and k, even in dry hot summer were: MCHC, total white blood cells, neutrophils, uric acid, creatinine, Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and Ca. The results also indicate that the fluctuations of seasons were observed in red blood cells, hematocrit (PCV) and E.S.R as lower level. Therefore, it could be valuable to provide that the dromedary camels adapted to tropical conditions.
Key words: 
Dromedary, Camels, Seasons, Blood Constituents

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Effects of enzyme (Xzyme) supplementation on the performance of laying hens fed diets containing different levels of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) leaf meal

Original Research, C2
pii: S222877011300002-3

Zanu H.K., Kagya-Agyemang J.K. and Avukpor C.M.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(1): 09-14., 2013.

ABSTRACT: An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the additive effect of enzyme (Xzyme) and cassava leaf meal on the performance of laying hens. The cassava leaf meal (CLM) replaced different levels of fishmeal at levels of 0, 5, and 10% CLM in three iso-nitrogenous diets. One hundred and twenty Lohman strains of layers at thirty-weeks of age were randomly assigned to the three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD). Each treatment had forty birds, with ten birds per replicate. The initial average liveweight of birds from each replicate was 1.7 kg. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. Data collected included feed intake, liveweight gain, egg production, carcass characteristics, hematology and serum biochemistry. Economics of production was also calculated. Feed intake of birds on the treatment groups with CLM + xzyme was not different from those on the control. Final weight gain of birds on diet with 10% CLM +xzyme was lower than their counterparts on the other diets. Carcass weight of birds was not affected by dietary treatments. There was no difference in egg production, egg weight, shell thickness, Haugh unit and egg mass between dietary treatments. The rate of utilization of feed was reduced with inclusion of CLM in diet, with birds on 5% CLM+xzyme based diet recording the least feed conversion ratio (FCR). Except for heart, kidney, full proventriculus, full and empty gizzard, the other organs showed differences in their weights. All hematological parameters investigated except Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) showed difference in their mean values. The total serum protein (TSP), albumin, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio showed differences. Cost benefit analysis indicated that profit derived from the incorporation of CLM+xzyme in the diets was the same as control diet.
Key words:
Egg Production, Hematology, Layer Diets, Leafmeal, Serum Biochemistry

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Response of two different broiler genotypes to diets containing cocoa pod husk

Original Research, C3
pii: S222877011300003-3
Hagan B. A., Adu-Aboagye G., Asafu-Adjaye A., Lamptey V., Boa-Amponsem K.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 3(1): 15-19, 2013.

ABSTRACT: A total of 300 day old chicks from 2 commercial broiler genotypes were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent cocoa pod husk (CPH) for 33 days. Thereafter, all the chicks were fed a common finisher diet which was devoid of CPH until 56 days of age. Body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency and carcass traits (eviscerated, gastro intestinal tract (GIT), feather and liver weights) were measured. Genotype × CPH level interaction was not significant in this study. Body weight of the genotypes differed significantly (P<0.05) at 1, 33 and 56 days but not at 14 days. The different CPH levels however, elicited differences (P<0.05) in the body weight at 15 % and 20 % inclusion rates for ages 14 and 33 days. When fed a common finisher diet at 33 days, recovery in body weight was observed in broilers fed all but 20 % CPH diet by 56 days of age. Feed efficiency which declined beyond 5 % CPH level at 33 days showed an improvement in all broilers except those fed 20 % CPH. Eviscerated carcass, GIT and liver weights showed no differences among the diets. The results suggested that even though growth of chicks deteriorated beyond 10 % CPH by 33 days, advantage should be taken of the tremendous compensatory growth upon CPH withdrawal and thereby increase the starter CPH level to 15 percent.
Key words:
Broiler, Cocoa Pod Husk, Diet, Genotype, Performance  

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Determination of nutritive value of tomato pomace using in vitro gas production technique

Original Research, C4
pii: S222877011300004-3
Rahbarpur A., Taghizadeh A. and Mehmannavaz Y.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 3(1): 20-22, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to the determination of nutritive value of Tomato Pomace (untreated and treated with two levels of urea) using gas production technique. The gas production was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8,10, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The gas production of unteated and treated with 1 and 2 leaves of tomato pomace at 72 h were 168.21, 164.21 and 156.66 ml/g DM and there were significant differences (P<0.05). Data showed that Tomato Pomace can be used as a high energy feed in ruminant rations to support growth and lactation, with fewer negative effects on rumen fermentation than starch rich feeds.
Key words:
Gas production, Tomato Pomace, Treated with Urea

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The influence an exogenous enzymes-probiotics complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats fed diets containing up to 60% rice bran

Original Research, C5
pii: S222877011300005-3
Boateng, M., Okai, D.B. and Amponsah, B.K.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 3(1): 23-27, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex) on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™). There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05) for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05) in feed conversion ratio (FCR) at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05). The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.
Key words:
Feed, Fibre, Albino rat, Rice bran, Xzyme™

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Comparison of dry matter digestibility of three variety of sorghum silages with speed feed variety by nylon bag technique

Original Research, C6
pii: S222877011300001-3
Ghareh Dashli K., Taghizadeh A. and Pasandi M.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 3(1): 28-30, 2013.

ABSTRACT: In this study, four types of sorghum silages were tested with nylon bag technique. Tow fistulae Gizel sheep with average BW 50.5±2.5 kg used in a complete randomized design. Ruminal DM disappearance were measured 0,4,8,12,16,24,36,48,72 and 96 h. Dry matter degradability of R161 and R165 at 96h were 66.88 and 62.35%, respectively were higher and lower DM degradability that showed significant differences (P<0.05). Sorghum silages have high DM degradability and its nutritional composition showed that its can used instead of Alfalfa. It can decrease feed price.
Key words:
Sorghum Silage, Degradability and Nylon Bags

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Effect of season and dietary protein level on immune response of three exotic broiler strains in Sudan


Original Research, C7
pii: S222877011300007-3
Huwaida E.E. Malik, Ali O.H.A., Mohamed, E.A.A. and Yousif, I.A.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 3(1): 31-35, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the season (summer versus winter) and dietary protein level (high versus low) using three broiler strains (Ross, Cobb and Hubbard) on immunity; heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and haemagglutination against sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Three hundred and sixty, one-day-old unsexed broiler chicks were used in this study during the summer and winter seasons, 120 from each of Ross strain, Cobb strain and Hubbard strain. Two experiments were executed in a complete randomize design (factorial arrangement 3x2x2). Each strain was divided into two groups, with six replicates (10 chicks per replicate). Group A of each strain was fed on a starter diet containing 23% crude protein for the first four weeks of age, then replaced by a finisher diet containing 21% crude protein. Group B was fed on a starter diet containing 21% crude protein replaced by a finisher diet containing 19% crude protein. Both diet were iso caloric. The results showed that the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio) increased significantly (P<0.05) during the summer in both Hubbard and Ross strains, but it was not significantly affected by the season in Cobb strain. The total antibody titers against SRBC were decreased during the summer season in the three strains. The level of dietary protein showed no significant effect on H/L ratio in the three strains. Decreasing dietary protein level decreased the total antibody titers against SRBC in both Ross and Hubbard strains. Whereas, it does not affect the total antibody titers against SRBC in Cobb strain.
Key words:
Broiler Strain; Season; Protein Level; Immune Response

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The determination of nutritive value of some rangeland plants using nylon bags technique

Original Research, C8
pii: S222877011300008-3
Ashrafi V and Eivazi P. 2013. B

Online J. Anim. Feed Res.
, 3(1): 36-39, 2013.

ABSTRACT: In order to determine of nutritive value of pasture forages (Agropyron intermedium Boiss, Coronilla Varia, Ziziphora Tenuior and Scorzonera grossheimii lipsch) using in situ, this study was carried out. In this study two fistulated wetheres (35±1.8 kg) were used in in situ method. Ruminal DM and CP disappearances were measured 0,4,8,16,24,36,48,72 and 96 h. Dry matter degradabilities of Coronilla Varia and Agropyron intermedium Boiss at 48 h, were higher and lower, that showed significant differences (P<0.05). Crude protein degradabilities of Coronilla Varia at 96 h was 78.18 % that were higher and showed significant differences (P<0.05). Pasture forages can used largely as a ruminant feeds.
Key words:
 
Pasture forages, Gezel sheep, Nylon bag

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Effect of feeding untreated or urea treated groundnut hull supplemented with different protein sources on blood parameters of Sudan desert lambs


Original Research, C9
pii: S222877011300009-3

Abdel Hameed A, Salih AM, Fadel Elseed AM and Amasab EO

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(1): 40-46, 2013

ABSTRACT: Hematology and serum biochemistry from thirty Sudan desert lambs (of an average body weight and age 18.0 ± 0.5 kg and 4-5 months respectively) fed diets contained untreated (UGH) or urea treated groundnut hull (TGH) with different protein supplementations (groundnut cake (GNC), cotton seeds cake (CSC) and fish byproducts (FBP) were investigated. The lambs given six dietary treatments; diets A, B and C were contained TGH supplemented with GNC, CSC and FBP respectively, while diets D, E and F were contained UGH supplemented with GNC, CSC and FBP respectively. Jugular blood samples were taken at 0, 45 and 90 days. There were significant differences between experimental diets in hemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) concentrations, while other parameters were similar. Increasing feeding periods resulted in higher increase in Hb, WBC, MCHC and MCH concentrations, while PCV and MCV concentrations decreased. The same trend was observed in total serum protein, urea and triglycerides concentrations with higher values recorded for lambs fed A, B or C diets, while, no differences were found on serum albumin and globulin concentrations. Serum P, K and Na recorded higher values for lambs fed in A and B diets than other experimental diets. as experimental period increased (from 0 to 45 and 90days) serum K and Na concentrations were decreased significantly, while no significant variations in the values of serum Ca and inorganic P. Ration × period interaction had no significant effects on concentration of serum K and Na from A, B and C diets, while there were significant variations on concentration of serum Ca and P. The study revealed that inclusion of TGH supplemented with GNC, CSC or FBP in the diets of growing Sudan desert sheep had positive effects on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters.
Key words: Urea, Crop Residues, Protein Sources, Blood Hematology, Blood Biochemical Profile, Sheep.

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Economic studies on immunostimulents in relation to mycotoxin infection in cultured fish


C10

Original Research, C10
pii: S222877011300010-3

Saad, T.T., Ahmed, H.A., El-Gohary, M., Ali, M.A.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(1): 47-57, 2013

ABSTRACT: Studies in the past decade confirm that the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne bacteria, yeast and mold can be inhibited by garlic, onion, cinnamon, cloves, thyme, sage, and other spices. Consumption of mycotoxin contaminated foods has been associated with several cases of human poisoning, or mycotoxicosis, sometimes resulting in death. This study concluded that: When the ration or the fish suffered from fungal infection the addition of black seed, garlic and onion will reduce the infection and improve fish health. In Post mortem lesions the fish suffered from mycotic infection showed severe degenerative changes in internal organs especially in the liver, heart and kidneys. The result cleared that, the blackseed is the best herbs that prevented and improve the aflatoxin effect followed by garlic and onion, respectively. The result also showed that level of RBCs and WBCs, differential leucocytic counts, phagocytosis process, serum protein, biochemical analysis of fish body, body weight and body weight gain improved with addition of blackseed, garlic and onion. The residue of aflatoxin in fish flesh decreased in the groups treated with blackseed, garlic and onion than the control or fish fed on the aflatoxin. The results also showed that, frequent supplementation of fish ration with black seed, garlic and onion can reduce the aflatoxin hazards in the fish. The results also concluded that, the higher economic efficiency measures (total return, total costs, net profit, total returns/total costs and net return to total costs) improved in the groups fed with blackseed, garlic, onion and all of them improved economic efficiency measures than the control groups and when all of them added to the fish treated with aflatoxin diet improved economic efficiency results than the group treated with aflatoxin only.
Key words:
Economic Efficiency, Blackseed, Aflatoxin, Biochemical Analysis.

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 Effect of cinnamon and ginger compared to Doxystin (antimicrobial drug) on serum lipid profile in broiler chicks

Original Research, C11
pii: S222877011300011-3

ElBagir, M. Nabiela, Hind, A.A. Elagib, S.A. Abbas, Ginawi, T.A.N.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(1): 58-61, 2013

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the medicinal plants cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale), as natural feed additives in comparison to (Doxystin) )“Doxycycline HCl 50 mg and Colistin sulfate” , known antimicrobial growth promoter) on the serum lipid profile of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty (one day-old) broiler chicks were assigned to four groups of the same mean weight, each with four replicates of ten chicks. The first group was used as control group and fed broilers basal diet, the second group fed the basal diet supplemented with the (Doxystin) as 0.5%, the third and fourth groups fed basal diet mixed with C. verum, and Z. officinale as 2% of the diet respectively. The experimental diets affected all parameters measured follows, total cholesterol and serum (low density lipoprotein) LDL-C concentration was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in groups received spices diet compared to Doxystin and control groups. Whereas, the (high density lipoprotein) HDL-C concentration showed significantly (P<0.05) lower levels in the two spice treated groups compared to the control group only, and the antibiotic treated animals showed similar level to that observed in spice treated groups. Triacylglycerols and the VLDL-C fraction showed clearly reduced values in all treated groups compared to the control group, though the difference was not significant but it was more pronounced in the spice treated groups, as they reported half the level of the control group. It can be concluded that inclusion of C. verum and Z. officinale as feed additives acted as natural hypocholesterolemic agents in broiler chicks in particular and reduced blood lipids in general.
Key words:
Lipid, Cholesterol, Cinnamon, Ginger, Broiler, Chicks

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Non regulatory constraints affecting pig industry in Zimbabwe


Original Research, C12
pii: S222877011300012-3

Mutambara J.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 2(5): 62-67, 2012.

ABSTRACT: This study was done to review the status of pig industry in Zimbabwe and find out the non-regulatory constraints to production and marketing using a value chain approach. The study used literature and secondary data from stakeholders and service providers as well as primary data collected through key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Data were analyzed mainly by value chain mapping and descriptive statistics. There are key players and service providers in the pig industry who play various roles from input supply, production, processing until the product is available to domestic and international consumers. Pork production has been going down over time from a record high of 20000 sow units in 2007 to about 10000 sow units in 2010. Pork production is further threatened by weak demand for meat estimated at 8.7kgs per capital. Key internal and external non regulatory constraints identified with percentage scores were poor breeding stock (84%), electricity gap (70%), abattoir fees (73%), skills gap (67%), shortage of abattoir facilities (57%), low production capacity (64%), low yield levels (64%), finance (61%) and low demand for pork (47%). These factors were noted as inhibiting growth and development in the sector. This paper will conclude by indicating that there is a need for a serious review of the operating environment of the industry in order to ensure the smooth running of business in the pig industry in Zimbabwe given the volume of issues identified by stakeholders in the pig value chain. It is recommended that further detailed research and inquiry be made around the various issues identified to provide hard evidence on the impact of such operating environment on the performance of the industry. With this evidence, stakeholders will gain more understanding of the need to create a favorable operating environment that will see growth and development in the pig industry.
Key words:
Literature, Secondary, Primary, Performance, Evidence, Business, Stakeholders

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Effect of herbal supplement on growth response and faecal egg counts of cockerels


Original Research, C13
pii: S222877011300013-3

Allinson I.B., Ekunseitan D.A., Ayoola A.A., Ogunade I.M. and Njoku C.P.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(1): 68-73, 2013

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out on 360 day-old cockerels to determine their growth response and faecal egg counts to herbal supplement administration. The birds were brooded and allotted to four treatment groups of 90 birds with three replicates of 30 birds each. The experimental treatment was based on the frequency of administration of the herbal supplement: Control, Weekly, Fortnightly, and every three weeks. Data on growth response and microbial counts were taken. Data obtained were subjected to One-way Analysis of Variance in a Completely Randomised Design. Herbal supplement had significant (P<0.05) effect on the bacteria and oocyst count of cockerels. Bacteria count was highest in the control treatment, while values were significantly similar in cockerels administered with herbal supplement. Oocsyt count was significantly (P<0.05) influenced with highest values obtained in control with lowest values statistically similar in treatment 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The effect of herbal supplement on the growth response of cockerels revealed that most parameters were not significantly (P>0.05) influenced by herbal supplement except Feed: Gain and average weight gain. The best Feed: Gain value and average weight gain was obtained in birds administered the herbal supplement weekly (treatment 2). Conclusively, herbal supplement (extracts) can serve and be used as antibiotic alternatives in poultry for better performance and utilization of feed in terms of feed: gain and weight gain particularly to control the growth of harmful bacteria.
Key words:
Herbal Supplement, Growth Response, Faecal Egg Count, Bacteria Count, Oocsyt Count.

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Chemical composition of oilseed cakes and deoiled cakes in Nepal


Original Research, C14
pii: S222877011300014-3

Sharma NK.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(1): 74-76, 2013

ABSTRACT: A study was conducted at Probiotech Industries laboratory from March 2011 to September 2012 A.D to access the qualities of MCs (Mustard cakes), MDOCs (Mustard deoiled cakes) and SDOCs (Soy deoiled cakes) available in different parts of Nepal. Oilseed cakes and deoiled cakes commonly used in livestock and poultry feed in Nepal are MC, MDOC and SDOC. Laboratory findings showed wide variation in chemical composition of these feed ingredients. Mustard Cake contained 91.42% dry matter (DM), 30.12% crude protein (CP), 5.98% crude fibre (CF), 9.29% ether extract (EE), 6.73% total ash (TA) and 1.58% acid insoluble ash (AIA). Mustard deoiled cake varied greatly in DM content ranging from 84.42% to 94.76% with a mean value of 89.84% DM. The mean CP, CF, EE, TA and AIA content in MDOC was 35.65%, 10.28%, 0.69%, 7.61% and 1% respectively. The mean DM content in SDOC was 87.24% but it ranged from 6.23% to 19.26%. Soy deoiled cake contained 44.85% CP, 7.16% CF, 1.03% EE, 7.74% TA and 1.49% AIA on an average though there was marked variation in these parameters. About 32.6% of SDOC samples contained CP above 46%. Since there is quite variation in composition of these oilseed cakes and DOCs, it is suggested that the feed millers and nutritionists of Nepal test each samples before using it for feed formulations.
Key words:
Mustard Cake, Mustard Deoiled Cake, Soy Deoiled Cake, Nutrient Composition, Quality

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Prevalence of Enteric Bacteria Isolates from Aquarium Snail (Ampullaria spp.) in Abia State, Nigeria

Original Research, C15
pii: S222877011300015-3

Nwiyi P. and Amaechi, N.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(1): 77-79, 2013

ABSTRACT: The freshwater snail (Ampullaria spp.) was evaluated to determine the presence of enteric-pathogens commonly present. The fresh aquarium snail samples were collected from 5 different open markets where they were displayed for sale at Aba and Umuahia. They were processed in the veterinary laboratory of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike. Different bacterial ranging from salmonella, pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Shigella, Aeromonas, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus were isolated. The presence of these pathogenic organism showed that Ama-ogbonna and Umungasi market recorded the highest isolate while New market, Ekeakpara and Umuahia central market recorded the least in that order: Escherichia coli, Proteus spp. and Salmonella spp. 30 (25.00%), 26(23.33) and 21(17.50%) recorded the most frequently isolated bacteria while Aeromonas and Staphylococcus spp. recorded the least frequently isolated bacteria 4(3.30%) and 4(3.30%). Due to the fact that these bacteria isolate present health related challenges on consumption of snail, there is the need for snails to be properly washed and cooked before eating.
Key words:
Freshwater Snail, Bacterial Ranging, Cooking, Eating

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Observations concerning haematological profile and certain biochemical in sudanese desert Goat


Original Research, C16
pii: S222877011300016-3

Babeker E.A. and Elmansoury Y.H.A.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(1): 80-86, 2013

ABSTRACT: Blood samples were collected from 30 (15 male and female) apparently healthy Sudanese desert goats ranging under the same field conditions from North Kordofan State, Sudan. This study had analyzed the hematological profile of goats and the influence of sex on the hematological and some biochemical values. On the Erythrocyte parameters sex had any  influence: The mean of red blood cell (RBCs) {(12.10 ± 0.53) (×106 /μL) } and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (35.69 ± 2.94) in males were higher than females {(12.27 ± 0.74) (×106 /μL), 36.45 ± 2.49)%}, while the hemoglobin (HB), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), were high in males than females. In leukocytary series: Total W.B.Cs, Monocytes (%) and Neutrophils (%) were higher in females, while Lymphocytes (%) and Eosinophils (%) high in males. Neutrophils (%) average was smaller than normal (23.67 ± 1.96) % and mean of Monocytes (%) was higher, which may be interpreted as a potential infection or hermetic aggression. In biochemical: Glucose was elevated in females goats, while total protein and urea higher in male animals. Ever Since the animals are apparently healthy, any value may be regarded as possible infection or metabolic and nutritional disorder.
Key words:
Haematological Profile, Biochemical Indices, Blood, Desert Goat.

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