OJAFR Latest Issues

Volume 3 : Issue 4 - July 2013

Table of Content, 25 July 2013

Research Title /
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Performances of catla (Catla catla) fingerlings reared on locally available ingredients

Original Research, C30
pii: S222877011300030-3

Srivastava P.P. , Jena J.K., Chowdhary S., Sharma P., Raizada S. and Dayal R.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(4): 153-158, 2013.

ABSTRACT: A comprehensive trial was undertaken to assess the effect of various types of feed ingredients on the biomass conversion rate in a 12- week feeding trials to evaluate the use of agro - based products, as locally available feed ingredient materials for fish catla (Catla catla) fingerling (av. wt. 1.52+0.11 to 1.55+0.07 g) growth performances. In experiment, three (26.14 to 26.56 % crude protein) practical diets were formulated. The experimental diets were fed to five replicate groups of fingerlings at 8% of body weight and results were compared. After 12-week study the final weight gain recorded as 12.45+0.03 g, 15.23+0.15 g and 18.12+0.17 g in F1 to F3 fishes respectively. The percentage weight gain recorded as 719.1%, 895.4% and 1069.0% respectively from initial weight. The results suggest that the growth is better in feed F3 containing higher soybean meal, Potato starch and lower content of Mustard oil cake. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) ranged between 2.34±0.11 to 2.98±0.09. The survival was recorded in F1 to F3 as 60±4.1%, 70±2.3% and 80+3.3% respectively. Lipid and protein contents in carcass composition differ significantly (P<0.05) among the three feeding trials. The study suggests that the soybean diet which is more effective, than the mustard oil cake, in the deposition of nutrients in terms of flesh (at early growing stage of life), and led to be significantly higher (P<0.05) growth than the other two diets in, Catla catla.
Key words: Feed ingredients, Fingerling, Growth performances, Catla catla



Effect of Maxigrain supplement on growth performance, economic indices and haematological parameters of heat-stress broilers fed three dietary fibre sources

Original Research, C31
pii: S222877011300031-3

Ademola S.G., Shittu M.D., Ayansola M.O. Lawal T.E. and Tona G.O.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(4): 159-164, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The study determined effects of Maxigrain supplementation to 3 dietary fibres on growth performance, economic indices, tibia ash of broilers raised under daily heat stress (420centigrade) of 4 hours. A total of 162 day old broiler chicks of Arbor Acres strain were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment of 27 birds. The fibrous ingredients were wheat offal, rice bran and corn bran. These were included in broiler starter and finisher diets at 3% and 20% respectively. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Birds in groups T1 (wheat offal), T3 (rice bran), T5 (corn bran) were fed unsupplemented diets. Diets in T2 (wheat offal), T4 (rice bran) and T6 (corn bran) were supplemented with Maxigrain® at 100mg/kg. The results showed Maxigrain addition to corn bran– and rice bran–diets significantly (P<0.05) improved feed conversion of heat stress birds. Heat stress chickens fed rice bran Maxigrain diet had better final liveweight and improved compressive strength than those fed enzyme wheat offal diet (final liveweight of 1758.9 versus 1566.67 g per bird and compressive strength of 4.75 versus 3.04 Newton percm2). Heat stress broilers fed rice bran enzyme supplemented diet had the best feed conversion, strongest compressive strength and achieved the highest profit (P<0.05). Birds consumed less of Maxigrain diets. However, the enzyme failed to improve final liveweight of heat stress chickens fed wheat bran diet.
Key words:
Heat stress, enzyme, fibres, tibia, compressive strength, broilers



The role of three wild animals in the distribution of preferred forage plants in the Dinder National Park (D.N.P) Sudan

Original Research, C32
pii: S222877011300032-3

Mohammed F.A., Mahgoub S, Abdel Hameed, S.M. 

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(4): 165-169, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted in Dinder National Park (D.N.P.) of Sudan during the dry season (March, April and May). Waterbuck (Kobus defassa), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and Tiang (Damaliscus korrigum) in D.N.P were chosen for this study. Seeds of Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal and Piliostigma reticulatum recovered from the fecal samples of waterbuck showed a highly increased rate of germination above the control. Acacia polycantha and Sesbania sesban showed decreased rate of germination below the control. The germination rate of Acacia siberiana showed no positive effect (zero) versus the control. The germination rate of the seeds of Ziziphus-spina-christi remained more or less above the control (53% and 50%, respectively). The germination of seeds of Ziziphus spina-christi from fecal samples of warthog showed higher increased rate of germination. The results of this study confirmed that the three wild herbivores are grazers, but they shift their diets towards forbs, woody plants and fruits of leguminous trees during the dry season. Waterbuck, Tiang and Warthog they depended on the plant diversely around water collecting places in the pank (Mayas) for their diets, but they selected other plant species from the surrounding. Also this study provides the information regarding food habits and feed requirements of these wild herbivores. Such information might help in the management of the habitat (Mayas) and the protection and sustainability of wild herbivores in D.N.P.
Key words: 
Dinder National Park (D.N.P.), Wild Animals, Forage Plants



Nutritional composition and effective degradability of four forage trees grown for protein supplementation

Original Research, C33
pii: S222877011300033-3

Gusha J., Ngongoni N.T. and E.Halimani T. 

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(4): 170-175, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The chemical composition and ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) of four browse legumes (Gliricidia sepium, C. calothyrsus, A. angustissima and Leucaena. pallida) were evaluated. The in sacco degradability of protein and DM of the four browse legumes were determined using four mature Friesian- Holstein rumen-cannulated steers (440=20kg) live weight. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the browse legumes using the nylon bag technique. Nylon bags with 3g samples of dried ground legumes (3mm screen) were incubated in the rumen. The incubation times were 0, 6, 12, 48, 72 and 120 hours in four cannulated Friesian- Holstein steers. The browse legumes were analysed for nutritive value in terms of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), Ash, condensed tannin (CT), calcium (Ca2+) and Phosphorus (P). Dry matter degradability was significantly different (P<0.05) and Gliricidia was highest, followed by L. pallida then A. angustissima and C. calothyrsus in descending order. Crude protein degradability was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of DM and was highest in L. pallida, G. sepium, A. angustissima and finally C. calothyrsus at the bottom. Effective degradability of DM in the rumen of the steers was highest with G. sepium (880g/kg DM at rumen outflow rate of 0.02/h) and least with C. calothyrsus (504g/kg DM) (P<0.001). Effective degradability of nitrogen was highest with L. pallida (645g/kg DM at outflow rate of 0.02/h) and least with C. calothyrsus (103g/kg DM) (P<0.001). The degradability profiles of these browse indicated that they can be used as alternative protein supplements.
Key words: 
Nylon Bag Technique, Degradability, Effective Degradability, Ruminal, Rumen Cannulated Steers, Rumen Outflow Rates



Correlations among concentrations of some metabolic hormones and nutritionally-related metabolites in beef cows

Original Research, C34
pii: S222877011300034-3

Damptey J.K., Obese F.Y., Aboagye G.S., Ayizanga R.A.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(4): 176-180, 2013.

ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to investigate correlations among some metabolic hormones and nutritionally-related metabolites in plasma samples from sixteen multiparous Sanga cows raised extensively on natural pasture during early lactation. Blood was sampled from cows once every two weeks, from week 1 to 9 postpartum. The samples were processed for plasma and concentrations of the metabolic hormones and nutritionally-related metabolites were measured Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was positively correlated with insulin (0.377; P<0.001) and glucose (0.249; P<0.05), but negatively correlated with urea (-0.241; P<0.05). Insulin was positively correlated with glucose (0.440; P<0.05), total protein (0.262; P<0.05), and albumin (0.242; P<0.05), but negatively related with cholesterol (-0.279; P<0.05). Leptin was correlated positively with total protein (0.338; P<0.001) and albumin (0.351; P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between glucose and total protein (0.410; P<0.001) or albumin (0.425; P<0.001), but the correlation with urea was negative (-0.291; P<0.01). Total protein was positively correlated with albumin (0.682; P<0.001), but negatively correlated with cholesterol (-0.561; P<0.01). Furthermore, albumin was negatively correlated with creatinine (-0.294; P<0.01), while cholesterol was positively correlated with urea (0.253; P<0.05), and creatinine (0.294; P<0.01). The positive relationships among the nutritionally-related metabolites and metabolic hormones suggests that the effect of alterations in energy balance and (or) protein balance on postpartum ovarian function could be mediated through changes in the secretory patterns of these metabolic hormones.
Key words: Body Condition Score, IGF-I, Ovarian Activity, Postpartum Period



Effect of surgical removal of the residual yolk sac on the development of the digestive system and immune response in broiler chicks during early days post-hatch

Original Research, C35
pii: S222877011300035-3

Osama. H. A. Ali and Huwaida E.E. Malik

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(4): 181-185, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the effects of the residual yolk-sac on the development of the digestive system and immune response of broiler chicks. Two experiments were conducted in this study. In the first one, 60 day-old broiler chicks (Lohmann) were allocated into three experimental groups according to the status of the residual yolk sac; deutectomized (surgically-removed residual yolk sac), sham operated and intact chicks. Five chicks from each experimental groups were randomly selected at days 2, 4, 6 and 8, weighed, euthanized and the different parts of their digestive tract and liver were weighed. The body weight of deutectomizd chicks at day 2, 4 and 6 post-hatch was significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared to that of sham operated and intact chicks. At day 8, the body weights of all experimental groups did not significantly (P < 0.05) differ from each other. The liver weight in deutectomizd chicks was significantly (P < 0.05) lower at days 2, 4 and 6 post-hatch compared to that of the other experimental groups. At day 8 the liver weights in the different experimental groups did not show any significant difference. The weights of the different parts of the digestive tract (crop, gizzard, provenriculus, intestine), somehow, in deutectomizd chicks were significantly (P < 0.05) lower at day 2, 4 and 6 compared to that of sham operated and intact ones. In the second experiment, 60 day-old broiler chicks (Lohmann) were allocated to the above mentioned experimental groups; 20 chicks per each. Thereafter, they were challenged with 10% sheep RBC suspension at day 2 and day 12 post-hatch. Ten chicks were randomly selected from each experimental group at day 12 and day 20 post-hatching, killed and their lymphoid organs (spleen, thymus and bursa of fabricius) were incised and sera were harvested from blood samples. The lymphoid organs were significantly (P<0.05) lower in deutectomized chicks compared to the two other experimental groups. The geometric mean titers (GMT) of antibodies against 10% sheep RBC suspension for primary and secondary immune responses in deutectomized chicks, were lower than that of sham operated and intact chicks. The results of this study revealed that the residual yolk sac is essential for the development of the digestive system and immune response in broiler chicks.
Key words:
Broiler Chicks, Deutectomy, Digestive system, lymphoid organs, Immune response.



Pathogenic microorganisms isolated from periwinkles in creeks south-south of Nigeria

Original Research, C36
pii: S222877011300036-3

Nwiyi P., Okonkwo C.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(4): 186-188, 2013.

ABSTRACT: One hundred and twenty pieces of periwinkle were obtain each from Yenogoa and Oron Creek. The periwinkle were of two genera namely: Pachymelania aurita obtained from Oronk Creek located in Akwa-Ibom State, while the Tympanotonus fuscatus notably a brackish water habitat was obtained from Yenogoa in Bayelsa state both in south-south Nigeria. Evaluation of possible microbiological isolate was carried out according to Cowan and Steel’s Manuel for medical Bacterial identification. The Creek in Yenogoa presented high level of Coliform count 2.6 x 105cfug-1 while the Oron Creek had an unacceptable load of Salmonella count 6 x106cfug-1. The total bacterial count was highest in Oron Creek 1.46 x 108cfug-1 from Tympanotonus fuscatus. The microorganisms isolated from both Creeks were Esherichia coli, proteus sp, salmonella sp, pseudomonas sp and Enterobacter sp. Proteus sp was the least isolated while Salmonella sp was the highest.
Key words: 
Pathogenic microorganisms, periwinkles, South-South, Nigeria.



Growth performance and haematological parameters of weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with chloroacetic acid

Original Research, C37
pii: S222877011300037-3

Amaechi N. and Njoku U.P.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(4): 189-192, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of chloroacetic acid on growth performance and heamatological parameters of weanling pigs. Thirty-six cross-bred weanling pigs (Landrace X Duroc) were allotted randomly to four treatment groups, with three replicates of three weanling pigs in each group. Control (T1) weanling pigs were given a standard basal diet; Treatment 2, 3 and 4 were diets of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 percents levels of inclusion of chloroacetic acid respectively. After six weeks, blood and intestinal samples were collected from one animal per replicate. Data on feed intake and weight gain were collected daily. Results showed that chloroacetic acid did improve the animal growth performance. There was a decrease in pH. There was significant differences (P<0.05) on white blood cell and mean corpuscular haemoglobin across the treatment. There was no significant difference (P<0.05) across the treatments on pack cell volume and red blood cell count. This study showed that chloroacetic acid influenced some haematological parameters, decreased the pH of the gastro-intestinal tract of the animals. Further studies will be needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects observed when chloroacetic acid is fed to weanling pigs.
Key words:
Nitrogen Chloroacetic Acid, Growth Performance, Haematological Parameters Weanling Pigs.



Effect of dietary levels of spearmint (mentha spicata) on broiler chicks performance

Original Research, C38
pii: S222877011300038-3

Amasaib E.O., Abd Elrahman B.H., Abdelhameed A.A., ATTA ELMNAN B.A. and Mahala A.G.,

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 3(4): 193-196, 2013

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the effect of addition different levels of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on broiler chick’s performance. One hundred and twenty eight day old unsexed (Cobb) broiler chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were distributed randomly into 16 pens (8/pen) as replicates, in a complete randomized design. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of spearmint (Mentha spicata) of 0, 1, 1.5 and 2%. Feed and water were freely accessed. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were weekly recorded and Mortality rate was recorded throughout the experiment. At the end of the experimental period, four birds from each treatment were randomly selected, weighed and slaughtered for determination of carcass weight and dressing percentage. Average feed intakes obtained from the experiment were 2680.20, 2679.11, 2708.55 and 2692.57 for diets 0, 1%, 1.5% and 2%, respectively. However, the body weight gain for the treatments were 1481.63, 1512.81, 1519.57 and 1519.63, 0, 1%, 1.5% and 2%, respectively. Feed conversion ratios for treatments were found to be 1.92, 1.94, 1.92 and 1.99 respectively. Dressing percentage were 73.12, 74.17, 73.08 and73.47 respectively. The results indicated that the supplementation of different levels of spearmint to the diets of broiler improved feed intake and body weight gain.
Key words:
Spearmint (Menthaspicata), Broiler, Performance



iginal Research, B70


Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 2(4): 000-000, 2012.


Key words: