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Volume 10 (3); May 27, 2020 [Booklet]crossref-_scienceline

1155-pelleted_browse-based_feed_with_a_basal_diet_of_Andropogon_gayanus_for_sheepResearch Paper

Effect of pelleted browse-based feed with a basal diet of Andropogon gayanus for sheep on intake, nutrient digestibility and some haematological and blood biochemical parameters.

Adjorlolo L, Nsoh M, Mensah-Bonsu A and Obese F.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(3): 76-84, 2020; pii: S222877012000011-10

DOI:  https://dx.doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.ojafr11


The study was designed to evaluate the nutritional quality of pelleted diets based on four of the major feed resources fed to small ruminants by farmers in the Accra Plains. Leaves of Samanea saman, Acacia auriculiformis and Ficus exasperata and cassava peels were dried, mixed with other ingredients and pelleted. A preference trial showed sheep accepted all the four supplements with a marked preference for cassava peels-based (CP-B) and Samanea saman-based (SL-B) supplements compared with Acacia auriculiformis-based (AL-B) and Ficus exasperata-based (FL-B) supplements (P< 0.05). The supplements were subsequently fed to Eight West African Dwarf sheep on a basal diet of Andropogon gayanus (Gamba grass) hay in Latin square design. Dry matter intakes (DMI) did not differ by the type of supplement (P> 0.05). However, crude protein intake (CPI) was higher (P< 0.05) in sheep fed AL-B and FL-B than those fed SL-B and CP-B. Dry matter and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility were lowest (P< 0.05) for sheep fed CP-B. Dietary treatments did not affect haematological parameters, except for neutrophil percentage which was higher (P<0.05) in sheep fed CP-B than those fed SL-B. Animals fed CP-B had the lowest monocyte concentrations (P< 0.05). Furthermore, all the serum biochemical parameters were not affected by dietary treatment except total protein concentration which was highest (P< 0.05) in sheep fed on AL-B. It is concluded that the feed resources available to the small ruminant keepers can be used to prepare pelleted supplements that are acceptable to sheep and help sustain appreciable performance on low quality forages during the dry season without any deleterious effects on intake, digestibility, physiology and health.
Keywords: Acceptability, Browse plants, Dry season, Accra Plains, Blood parameters, Feed intake

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1130-defects_of_wet-blue_hide_and_pickled_skin--Research Paper

Assessment on defects of wet-blue hide and pickled skin at Modjo Tannery. 

Feleke BA and Habtemichael YG.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(3): 85-92, 2020; pii: S222877012000012-10

DOI:  https://dx.doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.ojafr12


Across-sectional study was conducted from February to June 2015 with the objectives of identifying the major types of hide and skin defects and determining their prevalence in pickled skins of sheep and wet blue goat skins and hides originated from two districts namely Hitosa and Dodota of East Arsi Zone at the Colba and Gelan tanneries in Modjo town. A total of 389 wet blue cattle hides, 385 wet blue goat skin and 399 pickled sheep skin were examined. The study finding showed that there exist various defects responsible for the decline in quality of skin and hide. The major defects at the wet blue hide were flay cut (59.1%), gouge mark (42.2%), and putrefaction (35.2%). In sheep pickled skin higher percentage of cockle (36.9%), gouge mark (28.3%) and scratch (27.0%) were observed. In wet blue goat skin, cockle (48.1%), veininess (44.6%) and crack (41.9%) were the major defects observed. The prevalence of cockle, veininess, scar, corduroying, crack, gouge mark, poor pattern and brand mark were significantly higher (P<0.05) in goat skin at wet blue stage than pickled sheep skin while putrefaction and shoat pox were significantly higher (P<0.05) in sheep skin compared to goat wet blue skin. The major defects that leads to rejection of wet blue hide were flay cut while cockle in sheep and goat skin. In pickled sheep skin, grade of 1-3 accounts 14% and grade 4-7 accounts 86% of the total observation. This study showed large proportion of skin and hides were subjected to rejection because of poor quality and this implies that integrated efforts towards improved livestock husbandry and better health care are vital issues for production of better-quality hide and skin. Furthermore, effective extension system and programs that could raise public awareness on ectoparasites and skin diseases control as well as on methods of flaying, preservation and handling of skins should be implemented.
Keywords: Cockle, Fly cut, Grade, Hide, Quality, Rejection, Skin

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salmonellaResearch Paper

Potentialities of transmission of Salmonella Spp from water source to fish in muddy season in River Nile State, Sudan.

Bakhiet HHA and Zaroug M.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(3): 93-97, 2020; pii: S222877012000013-10

DOI:  https://dx.doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.ojafr13


This study was conducted in river Nile state, north Sudan aimed to give base line information on the potentialities of transmission of Salmonella spp from water source to fish in muddy season, in AL-fadlab and Al-akad stations. Twenty samples of water and Schilbidae spp fish were taken from the two stations and transferred to the laboratory for physiochemical and microbial analysis of water and studding fish species. Samples were performed using standard bacteriological procedures. Swaps from each fish gill were microbiologically analyzed for Salmonella spp and total plate count. Results indicated that studied fish infected by Salmonella spp in AL-fadlab station was 44.83±8.6 while in Al–akad station was 9.33±1.4, Salmonella spp in water was 5.00±1.0 in AL-fadlab station while it has no growth in Al–akad station. On the other hand, total plate count in fish gills was uncountable in AL-fadlab station and 30.40±7.1 in Al–akad station. Total plate count in water, was 8.13±1.87 for AL-fadlab station and 11.67±2.04 for Al-akad station. Statistical analysis showed significant difference (P< 0.05) in all studied parameters except the total plate count in water. There was also no significant difference in weight and length of studied fish species and also in water turbidity and temperature from both stations, but water pH showed significant difference (P< 0.05, 7.62±0.04 and 9.53±0.08 for Al-fadlab and Al-akad, respectively). Schilbidae spp fish infected by Salmonella spp in studied stations is an indicator of the contamination by untreated municipal sewage, runoff, and storm-water. Therefore, Schilbidae spp fish from studied areas have to be carefully handling and heating before consumption to avoid the pathogenic bacteria risks.
Keywords: Chemical, Foods, Genetically, Health, Organisms, Risk

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Major diseases of nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) with focus on current status in Arba Minch crocodile ranch, Ethiopia. 

Delene K, Lemma A, Fesseha H.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(3): 98-110, 2020; pii: S222877012000014-10

DOI:  https://dx.doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.ojafr14


Crocodylus niloticus is found in 26 African countries including Ethiopia, the largest recorded specimen measuring 17.0 feet Nile crocodile from the Gambela Upeno River in 1969. Its presence and absence also depend on the climatic conditions and the environment (i.e. the landscape for basking and feeding). In Ethiopia, Nile crocodiles have a mating period during September to October, Nesting occurs in the dry season December to January, and hatchling takes place at the onset of the rainy season, i.e. March/April months. Over the period 2007-2016, an average of 201,000. Crocodylus niloticus skins were exported globally per year, with an increasing trend over the period 2009-2016. Besides the management problems, at Arba Minch Crocodile Ranch, Nile crocodiles are suffering from nutritional abnormalities and health problems. The diseases of the Nile crocodile are classified as infectious (transmissible) and non-infectious (non-transmissible). A transmissible crocodile disease includes bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoan, and parasitic diseases; non-transmissible crocodile diseases are nutritional, toxic poisonings and metabolic disorders; other diseases like nutritional bone diseases and skin lesions are the major health problems at Arba Minch Crocodile Ranch. The main aim of this review is to highlight the major diseases and management status of Crocodylus niloticus in Arba Minch ranches, Ethiopia. In conclusion, the Arba Minch Crocodile Ranch (AMCR) should exercise care and caution when introducing hatchlings from the wild into the Ranch and enhance its husbandry methods to reduce the occurrence of infection and disease. It must also work with professionals and research groups.
Keywords: Arba-Minch, Crocodylus niloticus, Diseases, Nile crocodile.

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1169-chemical_composition_of_Argan_Argania_spinosa_L._oil-Research Paper

Evaluation of the chemical composition of Argan (Argania spinosa L.) oil according to its extraction method, origin of production and altitude. 

Hilali M, El Monfalouti H and Kartah BE.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(3): 111-118, 2020; pii: S222877012000015-10

DOI:  https://dx.doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.ojafr15


In this study the chemical composition of Argan (Argania spinosa L.) oil was evaluated according to its mode of extraction, origin of production and altitude of the Argan tree. To carry out this work, the physico-chemical characteristics and chemical composition of 5 samples differing by their mode of extraction or coming from different regions was compared. The study of the physicochemical characteristics of the 5 samples showed that the roasting of the almonds of the Argan fruit as a parameter can increase the value of the peroxide index, decrease the percentage of α-tocopherol and the unsaponifiable rates in percentage. Also it found that geographic origin can influence fatty acid values (behenic acid, C22:0). The results of the specific extinction and the refractive index did not give any precise information on the origin, the altitude and the method of extraction of Argan oil. The study of the triglyceride fraction showed that the geographical origin of northeastern Morocco can increase the value of triglyceride. Present study has indicated that the high quality of Argan oil can be extracted by mechanical pressing and hence, the present results may support the commercialization of Argan oil.
Keywords: Argan, Chemical composition, Extraction method, Nutritional value, Sapotaceae.

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1166-neonatal_mortality_of_newborn_lambsShort Communication

Maternal immunoglobulin in the serum of newborn lambs and its relation with neonatal mortality.

Demis Ch, Aydefruhim D, Wondifra Y, Ayele F, Alemnew E and Asfaw T.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(3): 119-124, 2020; pii: S222877012000016-10

DOI:  https://dx.doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.ojafr16


The study was conducted on 153 neonatal lambs of one of the highland breeds of sheep, locally called “Menz sheep” in North-Eastern part of Ethiopia, with the aim of assessing the relationship of total serum immunoglobulin level and neonatal lamb mortality in the first one month of life. The overall mortality in neonates was 8.5%. Surviving lambs (2.43±0.35 kg) were significantly heavier than those that died during the neonatal period (2.21±0.55 kg). Males (2.45±0.31 kg) were significantly heavier than females (2.37±0.43 kg). The lambs that survived the neonatal period had a significantly higher level of immunoglobulin (31.71±12.88 Zinc Sulphate Turbidity units) than those that died (12.77±5.25 Zinc Sulphate Turbidity units). Neonatal lambs with total serum immunoglobulin levels below 12 Zinc Sulphate Turbidity units may be considered as an indication of failure of passive transfer of colostrum immunoglobulins and consequently increased the susceptibility of lambs to diseases and subsequent deaths. The neonatal lambs with lower average birth weight (2.21 kg) and lower average total serum immunoglobulin level (12.77 Zinc Sulphate Turbidity units) had found dead before the first 30 days of their age. Most deaths of lambs occur in the first few days of birth that are typically associated with lower birth weight which also led to weakness, taking longer time to stand up and reduced chance of survival than lambs of heavier weight. Hence, several works have to be done to further improving the birth weight of newborn lambs as well as the nutritional status of the dam so that lambs may receive sufficient and good quality amount of colostrum from the first few hours of birth.
Keywords: Colostrum, Immunoglobulins, Neonatal lamb, Mortality.

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broiler_feed_forms_on_metabolic_and_skeletal_disordersResearch Paper

The effects of broiler feed forms on metabolic and skeletal disorders. 

Kuleile N, Ncheche Kh, Kamoho S, Macheli T, Jobo T, Phororo M.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(3): 125-130, 2020; pii: S222877012000017-10

DOI:  https://dx.doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.ojafr17


A completely randomized study was conducted at the National University of Lesotho farm (altitude 1650 meters) to address the high incidence of metabolic and skeletal disorders in broiler chickens. The incidence of ascites also increases significantly at altitudes greater than 1300 meters above sea level, presumably because of the low oxygen partial pressure. The ascites incidences are very high in Lesotho during the cold winter months, accounting for more than fifty percent of the total mortality. The main objective of the current study was to assess the effect of different feed forms on the occurrence and control of metabolic disorders in broilers. A total of 200 day-old Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed into two dietary treatments made up of two broiler feed forms namely mash and pelleted diet replicated four times with twenty-five birds per replicate. The two dietary treatments had similar nutritive value across all feeding phases with exception of feed form. Chicks were housed in a well-ventilated house where treatment diets and water were offered on ad libitum basis. Data collection was done on weekly basis for production parameters such as feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight and growth rate while mortality, signs of ascites, lameness and Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) data were collected daily. All dead birds were examined for the signs of ascites by presence or accumulation of fluids in the abdominal cavity. The findings of the current study indicated that dietary treatment had a significant (P< 0.05) influence on all production parameters namely feed intake, live weight, growth rate, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate. The dietary treatment also had a significant effect on incidences of ascites and lameness in broiler chickens whereby birds offered diet in the form of pellets had better production performance and higher incidences of the ascites, lameness and mortality than birds fed diet in mash form. On the other hand the dietary treatments did not have a significant (P> 0.05) effect on SDS. However, there were more incidences of SDS in birds offered pelleted diets than mash diet. Birds fed mash diet had fewer incidences because they were experiencing moderate growth rates compared to birds fed pelleted diet with fast growth rates. Birds offered mash spend more time consuming their feed compared to birds fed pellets and therefore, expend more energy in this process resulting in lower feed conversion efficiency. It was evident from the results that diet in mash form can be used to control the incidences of metabolic disorder by reducing growth rates of broilers.
Keywords: Form, Ascites, Mash, Pellets, Growth Mortality 

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Epidemiology, diagnosis and public health importance of Trichinellosis. 

Yayeh M, Yadesa G , Erara M, Fantahun S, Gebru A and Birhan M.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(3): 131-139, 2020; pii: S222877012000018-10

DOI:  https://dx.doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.ojafr18


Trichinellosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Trichinella following ingestion of raw or under cooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are one of the most prevalent zoonotic pathogens in the world. The parasite infects domestic and wild animals and has a worldwide distribution. The life cycle of the parasite consists of a domestic cycle in mainly pigs and a sylvatic cycle in a wider range of animals such as bears and wild boar. Humans become infected after eating raw or undercooked meat from domestic pigs, horses or game containing Trichinella larvae. There are twelve genotypes within the genus Trichinella, eight of which have been designated as species from which T.spiralis is the most pathogenic one. Host animals ingesting even high numbers of Trichinella larvae from infectious meat will not develop clinical symptoms. In humans, the clinical picture is usually illustrated by an intestinal stage within the first or second week after infection and later muscular stage with periorbital oedema, myalgia or muscle weakness as the major symptoms. The severity of the clinical course depends firstly on parasitic factors, such as the species implicated and the number of infective larvae ingested, and secondly on host factors, such as sex, age, and immune status. In practice, treatment with anthelmintics and immunosuppressive drugs is used only with human patients, not with animals. Trichinella infection in humans is strongly associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked meat; thus, cultural factors such as traditional dishes based on raw or undercooked meat or meat-derived products.
Keyword: Human, Parasite, Pig, raw meat, Trichinellosis; Zoonosis

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1141-Enhance_Small_Ruminant_Fattening_on_Pastoralist_Research_GroupShort Communication

Participatory evaluation of improved feed technologies to enhance small ruminant fattening on pastoralist research group (PRG) members in Chifra district of Afar national regional state. 

Nuru M and Yasin M.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(3): 140-143, 2020; pii: S222877012000019-10

DOI:  https://dx.doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.ojafr19


The causes for low productivity of sheep and goat include poor veterinary services, inadequate quantity and quality of feed. Among these limiting factors, poor feed supply and feeding system is the most important. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate and evaluate Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient Blocks (UMMNB) and concentrates mix feed technologies in participatory manner through Pastoralist Research Group (PRG) approach and look in to the perception and opinions of agro-pastoralist to the new feed and feeding techniques. The PRG has 25 members and was established a year ago. Among the PRG members, 6 trial agro-pastoralists were selected by the PRG members purposefully to implement the experiment. A total of 36 small ruminants (sheep and goat) were used for the trial. Training on UMMB preparation, formulation of concentrate feed, animal management and data collection were given for PRG members and Development Agents (DAs). The demonstration and evaluation trial were lasts for 4 months data collection period. Data were collected by the trial PRG agro-pastoralist throughout the trial period with close follow up of DAs and woreda experts. For data analysis purpose the researchers used descriptive statistics. The results showed that the final body weight and daily body weight gain was higher in grazing when supplemented with concentrates mix (Treatment 3) in compared to grazing + urea molasses block supplementation (T2) and control one/free grazing (T1). The partial budget analysis also indicated that small ruminant daily weight gain for 4 months with supplementation of concentrate mix supplemented groups (T3) was found to give on average economic return of 250 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) or 6.70 Euro per head. From this study, it can be concluded that the supplementation concentrate mix for small ruminants (sheep and goat) has better weight gain and economically feasible for the chifera district PRG established in 2017. It was also economical at PRG level, with average gross profit of 250 ETB per head in chifera area. Because of this, so money agro-pastoralists has been attracted by the business and engaged in small ruminant fattening practices by purchasing animals from market place without external advice and support.
Keywords: Small ruminant, Urea molasses block, Feed technology, Pastoralist research group

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1135-phytase_producing_lactic_acid_bacteria_in_poultry_birdsResearch Paper

Isolation of extracellular phytase producing lactic acid bacteria from the gastro intestinal tract of poultry birds.

Daodu AA, Olumuyide GD, and Edemhanria L.

Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(3): 144-149, 2020; pii: S222877012000020-10

DOI:  https://dx.doi.org/10.36380/scil.2020.ojafr20


Bacterial phytases and phytase-producing bacteria are of great industrial significance in the poultry industry and also in phosphorus pollution management. This study was designed to isolate and screen for phytase producing lactic acid bacteria from the duodenum, ileum and cecum of eight healthy cockerel samples. Standard microbiological procedures were followed to isolate phytase producing lactic acid bacteria using de Man Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) agar while extracellular phytase screening was done using phytase specific medium. The range of total microbial count obtain was highest at the cecum (2.85±0.11 to 4.34±0.12 log10 cfu/ml), lower at the duodenum (2.02±0.11 to 4.27±0.20 log10 cfu/ml) and lowest at the ileum (2.00±0.21 to 4.19±0.25 log10 cfu/ml). Nineteen bacterial isolates were identified as lactic acid bacteria on the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and later identified as Lactobacillus species (78.94%), Enterococcus species (15.78%) and Lactococcus species (5.26%). Thirteen out of the nineteen lactic acid bacteria showed phytase activity. Low phytase activity was observed in eight of the lactic acid bacteria isolates while five of the isolates produced significant extracellular phytase activity (>6mm). The most predominant Lactobacillus species were also found to be the most potent phytase producers. This can be exploited for industrial production of phytase in upgrading the nutritional status of feed and combating phosphorus pollution from poultry waste.
Keywords: Phytase, Gastrointestinal tract, Lactic acid bacteria, Phosphorus pollution, Poultry industry.

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