Volume 10, Issue 3: 93-97; May 27, 2020  
ISSN 2228-7701  
Haram Hassan ABBAS BAKHIET1 and Manahel ZAROUG2  
1Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Science College of Animal Production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology  
P.O.BOX 204, Khartoum North, Sudan  
2Ministry of Animal Resources, River Nile State, Sudan  
Email: haram_hassan@yahoo.com, Haram.hassan@sustch.edu  
Supporting Information  
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted in river Nile state, north Sudan aimed to give base line information on the  
potentialities of transmission of Salmonella spp from water source to fish in muddy season, in AL-fadlab and Al-  
akad stations. Twenty samples of water and Schilbidae spp fish were taken from the two stations and  
transferred to the laboratory for physiochemical and microbial analysis of water and studding fish species.  
Samples were performed using standard bacteriological procedures. Swaps from each fish gill were  
microbiologically analyzed for Salmonella spp and total plate count. Results indicated that studied fish infected  
by Salmonella spp in AL-fadlab station was 44.83±8.6 while in Alakad station was 9.33±1.4, Salmonella spp in  
water was 5.00±1.0 in AL-fadlab station while it has no growth in Alakad station. On the other hand, total plate  
count in fish gills was uncountable in AL-fadlab station and 30.40±7.1 in Alakad station. Total plate count in  
water, was 8.13±1.87 for AL-fadlab station and 11.67±2.04 for Al-akad station. Statistical analysis showed  
significant difference (P<0.05) in all studied parameters except the total plate count in water. There was also no  
significant difference in weight and length of studied fish species and also in water turbidity and temperature  
from both stations, but water pH showed significant difference (P<0.05, 7.62±0.04 and 9.53±0.08 for Al-fadlab  
and Al-akad, respectively). Schilbidae spp fish infected by Salmonella spp in studied stations is an indicator of  
the contamination by untreated municipal sewage, runoff, and storm-water. Therefore, Schilbidae spp fish from  
studied areas have to be carefully handling and heating before consumption to avoid the pathogenic bacteria  
Keywords: Chemical, Foods, Genetically, Health, Organisms, Risk  
Fishes are vertebrates, poikilotherms and live predominantly in water. Their body shapes may be elongate, dorsoventrally,  
laterally compressed or rounded in cross section but recognizable into head, trunk and post anal tail. They have been one  
of the main foods for humans anciently (Ibemenuga et al., 2014). Fish had long been regarded as a desirable and  
nutritional source of high quality protein and generous supply of minerals and vitamins constituting the major part of  
human diet (Hastein et al., 2006). Fresh water fish are subjected to the risk of contamination with various pathogens from  
different sources, primary during their presence in aquatic environment and secondary after being harvested through  
handling and marketing as well as storage. Such contamination may render these food articles unfit for human feed or  
even harmful to them (Elsherief et al., 2014). Fish and shellfish appear to be passive carriers of Salmonella, demonstrate  
no clinical disease and can excrete Salmonella spp. without apparent trouble. The contamination of this organism derives  
from terrestrial sources and fish may serve as a vector for Salmonella spp (Novotny et al., 2004). The presence of  
Salmonella as enter pathogens in farm fish may reflect the bad hygienic conditions during harvesting, transporting and  
marketing of the fish. The presence of considerable numbers of Salmonellosis indicates bad hygienic measures during  
catching and distribution of the fish (Valdivia et al., 1997).  
It is clear that fish are continuously exposed to the microorganisms present in water and in sediment. These  
organisms will undoubtedly influence the microflora on external surfaces including the skin, gills of fish. And the digestive  
tract will receive water and food that is populated with microorganisms. On the other hand, colonization may well start at  
the egg and or larval stage, and continue with the fish live (Olafsen, 2001). If the fish are exposed to environmental stress,  
or injury, it causes sever outbreaks of disease and mortalities. Environmental stresses such as high temperature, poor  
water quality and high organic content primarily contribute to the onset and severity of Enterobacteriaceae infections in  
fish (Zheng, et al. 2004; Thillai Sekar et al., 2008). Salmonella spp have been found to survive and multiply in the gut,  
Citation: Bakhiet HHA and Zaroug M (2020). Potentialities of transmission of Salmonella Spp from water source to fish in muddy season in River Nile State, Sudan.  
mucus and tissues of fish and that render fish acting as potential vector of human disease over long periods (David et al.,  
2009). The particular isolation of Salmonella spp, which when isolated from fish and fish products gives an indication  
about environmental fecal pollution of fish (Wogu and Maduakol, 2010).  
This study aimed to isolate the total viable bacteria and Salmonella spp from the water and shilbidae spp fish in the  
belt of river Nile from two stations (AL- fadlab and AL- akad) and to determine water physiochemical characteristics in  
studied stations (pH, temperature and turbidity).  
Study area  
Study was carried out in river Nile state north Sudan at (Al-fadlab) station in Atbara city and (Al-aked) station in Al-  
damar city during muddy season (2018), on the upstream of the River Nile.  
Water and Fish Sample Collection  
Twenty samples of water and fish shilbidae spp were collected from the studied stations using gills net between  
(6:00-8:00 am). Ten swabs samples were obtained by rubbing the sterilized cotton swab over the gills placed on ice in  
polythene bag and conveyed to the laboratory for microbiological examinations, water carried in test tube and transferred  
to Atbara water laboratory for the physiochemical and microbiological analysis turbidity was measure in the site.  
Swab, test tube, picker, flask, sensitive balance, gloves, tips, micro pipette, loops, petri dish, autoclave, incubator,  
distil water, broth agar, nutrient agar, SSA agar, glass containers, cotton, pH meter, thermometer and alcohol.  
Microbiological analyses  
Five ml broth agar was added for each swab and inoculated for at 37 ºC for 18 hour, after that the sample were  
serially diluted and 1ml of each diluted sample were plated for microbiological analysis.  
Enumeration and Isolation of Bacterial  
Preparation of the media and Isolation of the bacteria were done according to Cheesbourgh (1984). Sterilization of  
the media was done by autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min. Pour plate method was employed for the determination of  
microbial load of samples. Tenfold serial dilution of the samples was made and 10 dilutions of the samples were plated  
out on: Nutrient agar medium for total viable count (TVC), Salmonella/Shigella agar (SSA) for Salmonella isolation. All  
samples were incubated at 37°C for 24 - 48 h. After incubation the colonies were counted and isolated.  
Statistical analysis  
The obtained data were analyzed using independent samples T. test at 0.05 levels of significant, data were  
presented as mean ± standard error of mean. IBM SPSS statistics for Windows program, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM  
Corp was used in data analysis.  
Fish diseases due to bacterial infections are the major problems in the water sources as it found naturally in the fish  
environment and under certain stress condition causes severe economic losses to fish (Olsson et al., 1998). Fish and  
shellfish appear to be passive carriers of Salmonella, demonstrate no clinical disease and can excrete Salmonella spp.  
without apparent trouble. The contamination of this organism derives from terrestrial sources and fish may serve as a  
From the results of the microbial and physiochemical analysis of water it reveals that Salmonella spp bacteria were  
obtained in water and studied fish spp, that may be due to the occurrence of some contaminant sources in surrounded  
area., and from folded water in rainy season. This implies that studied fish are passive carrier of Salmonella spp bacteria  
pathogens this finding agree with Salihu et al. (2012). Fish harvested from contaminated waters can carry Salmonella  
spp. (Pelczar et al., 1993) which is pathogenic to man and other animals. Total plate bacteria detected in both location  
fish was higher than reported by Mandal et al. (2009). Who found that total plate count in fish was (2.55±0.15). The study  
revealed that the bacterial load was high in muddy season in the studied locations, one of the reasons possibly being that  
the high ambient temperature in the water body was close to optimum for many Mesophilic bacteria in natural systems  
and the bacterial load in fish might be increased with the increase of water temperature (Fernandes et al., 1997; Hossain  
et al., 1999). Also these results agree with the finding of Rekhari et al. (2014) and Abd-Elall et al. (2014), they found that  
the bacterial load is higher in summer season in cultured fish. Salmonella spp was transmitted to the studied fish gills  
throw water reflect the risk of the contamination of water by pathogenic bacteria, the physiochemical characters of the  
water were in suitable numbers of water for aquaculture.  
Citation: Bakhiet HHA and Zaroug M (2020). Potentialities of transmission of Salmonella Spp from water source to fish in muddy season in River Nile State, Sudan.  
Table 1 - Salmonella spp, total plate count in fish Schilbidae spp gills and water from Al-fadlab and Al-akad stations  
Al-fadlab Station  
Al-akad Station  
Salmonella Spp (fish gills )  
Plate count (fish gills )  
Salmonella Spp (water)  
No growth  
Plate count (water)  
Table 2 - Weight and length of Schilbeidae spp fish from Al-fadlab and Al-akad stations  
Al-fadlab station  
Al-akad station  
Weight (g)  
Length (cm)  
Table 3 - Water turbidity, pH and temperature °C in Al-fadlab and Al-akad stations.  
Al-fadlab station  
Al-akad station  
Temperature °C  
Figure 2 - weight and length of Schilbidae spp in studied  
Figure 1 - Salmonella spp and total plate count in the  
studied station fish and water  
Figure 3 - Water parameters in studied stations  
Citation: Bakhiet HHA and Zaroug M (2020). Potentialities of transmission of Salmonella Spp from water source to fish in muddy season in River Nile State, Sudan.  
Salmonella spp in fish was higher in Al-fadlab station than Al-akad station while the plate count was in the opposite  
situation. The Salmonella spp in water was high in Al-fadlab station compared with no growth in Al-akad station. There  
was no significant difference in weight and length of fish from the two locations. No significant difference in water  
temperature and turbidity from the two locations while there was significant difference in pH which is high in Al-akad  
Shilbidae spp fish from Al-akad Location and Al-fadlab Location areas have to carefully handling and heating  
before consumption to avoid the pathogenic bacteria.  
Continuous studies have to be conduct to assess the effect of contamination on these areas in fish health using  
different fish species and different season.  
Water quality has to be monitoring to evaluate any water risk that may affect the aquatic life.  
Authors’ Contributions  
All authors contributed equally to this work.  
This work was supported by Sudan University of Science and Technology.  
Competing interests  
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.  
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Citation: Bakhiet HHA and Zaroug M (2020). Potentialities of transmission of Salmonella Spp from water source to fish in muddy season in River Nile State, Sudan.