Volume 10, Issue 4: 185-190; July 27, 2020  
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science, State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, 28293, Indonesia  
Email: erwan_edi@yahoo.com;  
Supporting Information  
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate growth performance and plasma total cholesterol  
(TCHO) concentration of KUB chickens fed by substitution of commercial feed with corn in 1 of day-old chick of  
KUB were raised for 10 weeks in two dietary groups including only commercial feed (group A) and a commercial  
feed substituted by 30% corn (group B). Data were analysed by T-test. The results showed that there was no  
significant effect of the treatments on feed intake, body weight (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in KUB  
chickens. Similarly, plasma TCHO concentration did not show any difference between two experimental rations.  
However, total income of commercial feed substituted with 30% corn was higher than commercial feed. It was  
concluded that corn could be used at 30% to substituted commercial feed without significantly affecting the KUB  
chicken performance and TCHO. Present research considered usefulness of corn as a potential alternative of  
commercial feeds in KUB chickens in Indonesia.  
Keywords: KUB chickens, Feed Intake, Body Weight Gain, Feed Conversion Ratio, Commercial Feed, Corn  
The use of native chicken in tropical countries varies among countries and from community to community within a region  
(Padhi, 2016; Yakubu et al., 2020). Recently, the poultry production in Indonesia has been given significant economic  
prospect especially towards provision of chicken carcasses in an effort to fulfill community demand of nutrition (Puspani  
et al., 2011; Harianto et al., 2019). Population of native chicken in Riau Province from year to year continues to increase  
along with consumer tastes towards native chicken. This fact is reflected in population growth and demand for native  
chickens, which has increased from year to year (Bakrie et al., 2003). According to the Central Statistics Agency the  
number of native chickens in 2014, 2015 and 2016 were 3,327,820, 3,746784 and 3,896,655, respectively (Central  
Bureau of Statistics, 2017). Indigenous chickens contributed in meat production about 292,710 tons in period 2011-2015.  
Recently, indigenous chicken production includes almost 16.7% of total of market share of commercial meat-type poultry  
in Indonesia (Tangendjaja, 1999). Considering this potential, solutions should be sought to increase population and  
productivity. To fulfil the demands of indigenous chicken meat in Indonesia, it has been followed by the finding of native  
KUB chicken as moderately improved native chicken breed. KUB chicken is a superior native chicken produced by the  
Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Indonesia (Hidayah, 2019). The KUB breed has some  
advantages such as high hatchability, low feed conversion ratio and high rates of egg production (160-180 eggs/year)  
(Sartika, 2016) as well as considering aa a meat type breed (Hidayah et al., 2019), in compared to their previous  
generations as well as local chickens.  
One of the keys to success in maintaining KUB chicken is to meet their nutritional needs through the provision of  
rations that are in accordance with the standards of livestock needs. In general, farmers buy commercial rations that are  
marketed to have nutritional standards. The feed is the largest cost component, which is about 70% of the total  
production cost in poultry (Teguia and Beynen, 2005). Therefore, indirectly the ration is a determinant of the level of  
profits of farmers. The price of commercial rations sold in markets and poultry shops is considered very expensive by  
farmers. Therefore it is very important to look for ration giving strategies to reduce feed costs. One alternative that can be  
taken to reduce the cost of feed is to reduce the portion of the commercial ration provided by one of the raw materials  
that contain high calories to the performance of the chicken.  
One of the main feed ingredients in poultry in preparing rations as an energy source is corn. This feed ingredient has  
several advantages including easy digesting, palatable and does not contain anti-nutritive substances. In addition, corn  
also contains xanthophyll substances which can increase the yolk on the yolk, feet and chicken carcass skin. Aside from  
being a feed source for carbohydrates, the ingredients of this ration are also a source of protein, namely: albumin,  
globulin, prolamin, glutelin, and nonprotein nitrogen. According to Scott (1982) yellow corn compound 3,370 kcal / kg of  
Citation: Erwan E (2020). Effects of substitution of corn for commercial ration on performance and plasma cholesterol in KUB chicken. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(4):  
metabolic energy (EM), 8.6% crude protein, 3.9% fat, 2% crude fiber 0.02% calcium and 0.1% phosphorus. In addition,  
Suarni and Widowati (2007) stated that corn has other advantages including containing 12.19% dietary fiber which  
functions to reduce total cholesterol (TCHO), LDL levels and blood glucose. Another advantage of corn is that it contains  
vitamin A or carotenoid and vitamin E which functions as natural antioxidants that can increase the body's immunity and  
can inhibit degenerative cells. The content of several essential minerals, such as K, Na, P, Ca and Fe are also found in  
Several previous studies have shown that replacing some commercial rations with corn does not reduce chicken  
performance. For instance, Puspani et al. (2011) revealed that substitution commercial feed up to 20% with corn did not  
alter feed consumption and FCR in broiler chicken. Winarti and Wiranti (2013) fed diet substitution of broiler commercial  
feed with corn up to 40% did not adverse growth and FCR in native chickens. Furthermore, Munira et al. (2016) in their  
research results reported that there were no significant difference on feed intake, body weight gain (BWG), carcass weight  
and carcass percentage of super native chickens when fed fermented 10% rice bran in ration compared to control. These  
findings indicate that one alternative that can be done in an effort to reduce the cost of raising chickens both broilers and  
native chickens is to replace some commercial rations with energy source feed ingredients.  
To our knowledge, there have been no reports regarding the effect of substitution of commercial feed with corn on  
performance and plasma TCHO in KUB chicken. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of  
substitution of commercial feed with corn on performance and plasma TCHO in KUB chickens. In addition, evaluation of  
corn energy source for economical broiler production also was evaluated.  
This research was carried out at the Poultry Division Field Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science, State  
Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, Indonesia in 2018.  
Ethical approval  
Chickens were handled and managed accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of  
Animal, at the Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science, State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, Pekanbaru,  
Animals and ration  
This study used 50 DOC KUB chickens purchased from local breeding farms and placed in 2 enclosures (25 per plot).  
All birds were distributed with uniform body weight and water was provided ad-libitum. One day before the experiment.  
Placement of chickens into the cage was done randomly. Chicken was put into the cage done two weeks after the cage  
was cleaned and washed. Likewise, the treatment was given randomly. The size of the enclosure for each unit is 75 cm x  
60 cm width and 60 cm height. Each cage was equipped with a ration container and drinking water container. This study  
consisted of 2 treatments, each consisting of 25 chickens. The treatment ration and water were given ad libitum. Chicken  
were raised for 10 weeks. Experimental rations consisted of two treatments, namely 100% of commercial feed and 70%  
commercial feed + 30% corn. The commercial feed was purchased from PT Charoon Pokphan Ltd, Pekanbaru (Table 1),  
while the composition of nutrient content of treatment is shown in Table 2. The parameters measured were performance  
including feed intake, (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), concentration of TCHO in blood plasma.  
Table 2 - The percentage of nutrient content of Corn and Commercial ration  
Commercial ration  
Crude Protein (%)  
Crude Fiber (%)  
Crude Fat (%)  
Ca (%)  
P (%)  
ME (Kcal/kg)  
* Scott et al. (1982). Ca: Calcium, P: Phosphor, ME: Metabolizable Energy; *Commercial feed: CP511 PT, Charoen Pokphand, Indonesia;  
**Mineral Premix: Supplemented for kg of the diets: Vit. A, 12000 IU; D3, 2000 IU; E, 20 mg; K3, 3 mg; B2, 7 mg; B3, 12 mg; B5, 3 mg; B12,  
0.03 mg; biotin, 0.1 mg; choline chloride, 300 mg; Mn, 130 mg; Fe, 70 mg; Zn, 60 mg; Cu,12 mg; I,1 mg; Se, 0.2 mg, and adequate antioxidant.  
Table 2 - Composition of nutrient content of treatment  
100% of Commercial feed  
70% commercial feed + 30% corn  
Crude Protein (%)  
Crude Fiber (%)  
Crude Fat (%)  
ME (Kcal/kg)  
Citation: Erwan E (2020). Effects of substitution of corn for commercial ration on performance and plasma cholesterol in KUB chicken. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(4):  
Growth performance  
Feed intake and BWG were recorded weekly throughout the experiment. Feed intake was corrected for body weight  
taking account of mortality if any. Feed intake was calculated as a difference between the amount of feed supplied to the  
birds and the amount of feed that remained at the end of each feeding period. BWG was calculated as a difference  
between the final and initial birds weight during each of the weighing periods. Feed intake and BWG were recorded at  
week 1 to week 10 and FCR was calculated as a ratio between feed intake and BWG for each period.  
Analysis of plasma total cholesterol  
The TCHO was determined with Microlab 300 (Vital Scientific, Netherland) as per the manufacturer’s instructions.  
Samples were assayed together and in a random sequence for each sample.  
Statistical analysis  
Data obtained were analyzed by T test. Significant differences will be given in the symbol p<0.05. Data to be  
displayed was ± SEM which is processed by SPSS commercial software (2007). Before data processing was performed, all  
raw data was performed by the Thompson test to eliminate outlier data using the test level (p<0.05), then proceed with  
data analysis.  
Feed intake  
Weekly feed intake of the birds is shown in Table 3. T test results of feed intake, did not show significant effect  
(P>0.05). Feed intake during the entire experimental period, ranging from 406.31 to 400.6 g/bird/week, respectively.  
This shows that substitution commercial feed with corn up to 30% did not affect feed intake. The result was consistent  
with previous work (Puspani et al., 2011) who revealed that substitution of commercial feed with corn up to 20% did not  
alter feed intake in broiler chickens. Similarly, Winarti and Wiranti (2013) who reported that substitution of broiler  
commercial feed with corn even up to 40% did not significantly change feed intake in native chickens. It seems that  
substitution of broiler commercial feed with corn did not alter feed intake thereby the composition of nutrients such as  
crude protein and energy metabolism in between two treatments given to KUB chickens still adequate to maintain their  
It is well know that level of protein and feed energy will affect the consumption of feed. Feeds that contain relatively  
similar protein and energy cause the same consumption of feed (Astuti, 2012). According to Parakkasi (1985) chickens  
consume rations mainly to meet their energy needs. Chickens cannot adjust to their rations precisely but consume more  
energy if their feed energy levels are low (Anggorodi, 1994). However, as shown at Table 2, the average feed intake of  
KUB chicken fed with substitution commercial feed with corn was 400.6 gram/bird/week higher than previous study  
(Munira et al., 2016) who found that the average of feed intake of KUB chickens was 307.80 grams /bird/week when fed  
a basal control diet prepared in 10-week. The reason for these discrepancies on feed intake due to KUB chickens is  
unknown. Such differences also might be attributed the size of the feed ingredient composition, feed formulation and  
feed pellet quality and management including environmental management, feed and water availability to the birds,  
disease control, and stocking density (Ferket and Gernat, 2006; Kuleile et al., 2020). These results also may imply that  
KUB chickens have a low nutrient requirement for maintenance and growth compared to broiler chickens. The trend of  
average weekly feed intake of KUB is shown in Figure 1. As shown in Figure 1 during the first 7 weeks, the average feed  
intake in chickens on both experimental rations increased gradually and showed similar trends. There was no increase in  
the feed intake of chickens during 8th and 10th.  
Table 3 - Average of feed intake of KUB chickens  
provided with commercial feed or substitution  
commercial feed with corn (gram/bird/week)  
Control (broiler  
Age (week)  
30% substitution  
commercial feed)  
Figure 1 - Effects of experimental rations on the weekly  
feed intake of KUB chickens.  
Citation: Erwan E (2020). Effects of substitution of corn for commercial ration on performance and plasma cholesterol in KUB chicken. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(4):  
Body weight gain  
Results of BWG of birds fed with experimental diets are presented in Table 4. The results of data analysis showed  
that the substitution of commercial feed with 30% corn did not significantly (p>0.05) affect BW gain in KUB chickens. The  
average BW gain during 10 weeks old of was 487.0 and 420.5 g/head/week, control and substitution treatments,  
respectively. These results confirmed with previous work (Winarti and Wiranti, 2013) who found that reported that  
substitution of feed with corn up to 40% did not significantly alter BW gain in native chickens. This results might be  
attributed by feed intake were also similar of the two treatments. Visualization of the average weight gain of super native  
chickens during the study is shown in figure 2. As shown in Figure 2 that during the first 5 weeks, the average BW gain in  
chickens on both experimental rations increased gradually and showed similar trends. However, during 5th and 10th the  
average BW gain increased sharply. It seems that substitution broiler commercial feed had higher trend than control diet  
during 5th and 10th. This shows that it is advisable to carry on keeping the KUB chickens until 10th week as the chickens  
consumed more feed and gained gradually. These results indicate that the 5th week was the period of the beginning of  
gradually growth which then continuously growth in sharply trend up to 10th week.  
Table 4 - Effect of partial replacement of broiler  
commercial feed with corn on BW gain in KUB  
chickens (gram/bird/week)  
Age (week)  
Figure 2. Average of BWG of KUB chickens in feeding  
substituted with corn  
Feed conversion ratio  
The average FCR for 10 weeks g /bird/week raised from lowest to highest respectively 4.78 and 5.0 as in Figure 3.  
The results of the data analysis show that the replacement of commercial rations with corn did not significant effect  
(P>0.05) on FCR. The results of this study were not much different from the results of the study of Munira et al. (2016)  
who demonstrated that the average FCR in super native chickens up to 10 weeks of age with substitution of fermentation  
rice bran was ranging from 4.1 to 4.9  
Economics of production  
Economic analysis as influenced by substitution commercial feed with 30% corn is shown in Table 5. Total input cost  
per bird was calculated on the basis of total feed cost and cost of chicks and cost management. As KUB chicken fed on  
substitution commercial feed with 30% corn the cost of experimental ration decrease. Net profits were obtained for the  
group compared to fed by 100% of commercial feed.  
Table 5 - Economic analysis of feeding commercial  
feed and substitution of commercial feed with corn to  
KUB Chickens (in Indonesian Rupiah)  
Control (broiler  
commercial fee  
+ 30% corn  
Cost* of feed  
Cost of chicks  
Cost of management  
Total cost  
Sale revenue  
Figure 3 - Effects of experimental rations on the weekly  
feed conversion ratio of KUB chickens  
*Based on Indonesian currency  
Citation: Erwan E (2020). Effects of substitution of corn for commercial ration on performance and plasma cholesterol in KUB chicken. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(4):  
Total cholesterol  
The results of the study of commercial feed substitution with corn feed ingredients on TCHO of KUB chicken plasma  
is shown in Figure 4. Based on statistical analysis, there is no effect of experimental rations TCHO levels (p>0.05). Study  
of plasma metabolites in bird enables metabolic change to be evaluated that are due to the effects of many factors,  
including pharmacological condition physiological state, age, husbandry condition, and genetic type (Meluzzi et al., 1991;  
Gayathri et al., 2004; Erwan et al., 2014, 2017, 2020). The average TCHO level in the control and substitution with 30%  
corn was 154.52 mg/dl and 166.42 mg/dl included in the normal range according to finding of Mangisah (2003) who  
explained that normal chicken blood cholesterol levels ranged from 125-200 mg/dl.  
Partial substitution of commercial feed with corn feed ingredients did not affect TCHO. No differences TCHO levels  
presumably correlated to feed ingredients both treatments were similar. This result shows that substitution 30%  
commercial broiler feed with corn still could be tolerate on plasma metabolite especially TCHO in plasma. TCHO derived  
from feed plays an important role, because it is the main sterol in the body and the cell surface components and  
intracellular membranes. De novo cholesterol biosynthesis is much influenced by stress factors of super native chickens.  
Overal these results indicated that KUB chicken fed by substitution commercial feed with 30% corn did not adverse  
performance and plasma cholesterol .  
Figure 4 - Effects of experimental rations on total cholesterol in KUB chickens  
It is concluded that corn could be used up to 30% to substitute commercial feed in diets of KUB breed chickens (local  
breed) could reduce cost of production without change growth performance and plasma cholesterol level in local breeds  
of broiler chickens. A future study will explore on the effect of using 30% to substitute commercial feed on performance  
and plasma metabolites in other poultry species.  
Corresponding author  
Edi Erwan, Ph.D. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science, State Islamic University  
of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau, 28293, Indonesia, email: erwan_edi@yahoo.com  
Availability of data  
The data can be availed to the journal upon request.  
Consent to publish  
Not applicable  
Conflict of interest  
The author declares they have no competing of interests.  
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Citation: Erwan E (2020). Effects of substitution of corn for commercial ration on performance and plasma cholesterol in KUB chicken. Online J. Anim. Feed Res., 10(4):